American Mosaic, July 2011 FOCUS: Leslie Marmon Silko, “Lullaby” “Lullaby” is a short story that first appeared in a book entitled Storyteller in 1981. This was a book written by Leslie M. Silko that uses short stories, memories, poetry, family pictures, and songs to present her message. The book is concerned, in general, with the tradition of story-telling as it pertains to the Native American culture. Lullaby seems to be a story of tradition, change, death, loss and the tensions fostered as a result of them between the old couple in the story and the Anglo-American authorities of the time.

Throughout the story there are quite a few conflicts. Some are internal between Ayah and herself and others are external ones through Ayah, the white man, and Chato, her husband. The story is told by the main character, Ayah. She’s an old woman retracing tragic memories of life occurrences like the death of her son, Jimmie, in a helicopter crash during a war. She was not sure about what happened to him until a man in khakis drove up in a blue sedan and told her that he was dead and how he died. Jimmie was the one that taught Ayah to sign her name.

She regrets this greatly as she relays the loss of her other two children who were taken by white doctors because they were thought to have a disease, allegedly given to them by their grandmother. They were taken because, in fear of the white men who were yelling and pointing for her signature, she “signed” the children away. Later on, when they were brought to visit, it was apparent the children were forgetting their customs and language; further evidence of the completeness of her loss. These events seem to have severely alienated Ayah towards Chato as well.

Especially those specifically related to the children as indicated by, “She slept alone on the hill until the middle of November until the first snows came. Then she made a bed for herself where the children slept. She did not lie down next to Chato again until many years later when he was sick and shivering and only her body could keep him warm. ” Ayah also speaks of her husband’s work (Chato) as a fence mender for a nearby rancher. She took offense at the exploitation Chato endured at the hands of the rancher that employed im, and let him go without hesitation when Chato gets too old to work. As a result they lost their home when the rancher told Chato he [and “his old woman”] had to be out of the shack [they lived in] by the next afternoon. Despite Ayah’s immense sense of devotion to Chato it seems apparent that she sees him as a weak husband and resents him deeply for it. Though much of the story is of Ayah’s reminiscences, its present tense has Ayah searching for Chato. She finds him walking along the road late on a very cold night [seemingly] in a daze brought on by illness [and wine].

While resting together beside the road she wraps Chato in the army blanket Jimmie sent her thereby eliciting comfort from a symbol of one of her greatest losses. The lullaby she sings to him at the end of the story, as they lie together in the snow, is one that her grand-mother and mother sang to her as a child and seems to provide a sense of closure for her as she sings it. It is one of the last pieces of tradition she can cling to from her own culture as she waits for death to take her and her husband from under the cold, clear winter sky.

While there are quite a few striking similarities between the French and American Revolutions, there are equally as many differences. Both the French and the American Revolution stem from ideals of Enlightenment, wherein the public wanted to be free from oppressive and tyrannical rulers, and put power back into the hands of the people. The French revolution was a result of lower classes fighting to overthrow a government within their own country out of a need for welfare and financial security.

The people of France were starving as taxes kept rising in order to keep aristocrats in the lap of luxury. The American Revolution started because of the need to feel justice, fairness and equality; America already had a large degree of self government. Britain treated the America’s as a territory instead of an extension of their land and their people which resulted in Americans fighting an overseas king to become and independent nation breaking away from British rule. Both the American and the French Revolution had key leaders, impacting the direction each countries Revolution would take.

Both the American and the French leaders had a huge impact on how violent each war would turn out to be. American’s had Thomas Jefferson and George Washington who helped shape the country, the government, and the people in a positive and significant way; leading to an almost non violent transition. France had leaders who, although are an crucial part of history, didn’t have a constructive impact on the country or the people. Unlike the leaders of America, the leaders of France caused more destruction and harm than good.

The French people looked to these leaders for help in deciding which kind of government would be most advantageous for them. Debatably, one of the most prevalent leaders of France was Maximillien Robespierre, who demanded a republic; his demands were met when the monarchy was overthrown, and King Louis XVI was executed. Maximillien Robespierre brought about was the “rein of terror” killing anyone who was in support of a monarchy or tyrannical type government, where up to as many as forty thousand people were killed by guillotine.

In the French Revolution, people were fairly split on what they wanted to happen resulting in a radical change of goals throughout the war; which later led to a civil war. The American people sent a Declaration of Independence stating our intention to break away from British rule and become our own independent country. The goals of the American people remained nearly the same from start to finish. The Americans were never violent towards supporters of British monarchy, like the French were. In conclusion, The American and French Revolution were started on the same basic fundamentals such as leaders, enlightenment, and ideology.

The French people looked toward America as an example of what they sought for their own country; however, because of the difference in leaders and ideals, each country’s Revolution took a fundamentally different turn, but having almost the same conclusion. In France, leaders such as Robespierre and Napoleon with their eventual dictatorship helped France rid itself of a monarchy indefinitely, leading to a democracy. In America Leaders such as George Washington and Thomas Jefferson also helped America evolve into a democratic government.

Tim Ta Mrs. Shuck English IV 3rd hour 22 February 22, 2011 Food and Drink in England Have you ever wondered how other countries choice of food and drink or customs differed from your own? In England, their diet and customs do not differ as much from our own. We have similarities such as the main courses of breakfast, lunch, and dinner such as our choices of diet over the centuries has changed. But differences such as tea time, which is a very important social time in England, and their choice for there diet is different from ours. These things set our cultures differently when it comes to food and drink.

Their first main course of the day in England is breakfast. Breakfast is usually eaten between seven to nine am. People in England usually have two types of breakfast they can choose form. These two types of breakfast are called a typical or traditional breakfast. When people were falling behind on time during breakfast they would usually have a typical breakfast. The typical breakfast usually consists of fruits or a bowl of cereal, and the beverage would be a glass of milk or orange juice, but more commonly would be a cup of coffee (Andrews 73). Then there is the other option which is the traditional breakfast.

The traditional breakfast usually is only eaten during special occasions. This is because it takes time to prepare for this type of breakfast. The traditional breakfast consists of eggs, bacon, sausages, fried bread, baked beans and mushrooms (Spencer 52). Then when breakfast is over lunch follows shortly after. The next important meal of the day is lunchtime. Lunch is usually eaten around 12-1:30 everyday because that is when the breakfast in their system starts to fade away. In England there really isn’t a thing as a traditional lunch because people usually never have time to have a full course meal during this time.

Instead the choice of food varies over a wide range of options. These options could include burgers, fish and chips, lasagna, salads, biscuits, or just pretty much anything that involves some kind of meat and vegetable combined (Andrews 74). People in England however do have a typical lunch that you see everyday people bring to school or work everyday. This meal usually consists of a sandwich, a pack of chips, a piece of fruit and some kind of drink. Although lunch during the week isn’t important, when it comes down to lunch on a Sunday that’s when lunch plays an important role.

Lunch during a Sunday isn’t seen as just a time to grab something quick to eat and then head off back to work or school. On Sundays they usually are able to take their time to prepare a nice feast to enjoy with the family. That is why on Sunday lunch is considered a family occasion where the family can get together to discuss the past week and the week to come. This is why Sunday lunch can be compared to dinner or supper because it is very important to the family because it is a perfect time for them to be able to socialize with each other to create a better bond within the household.

Other than Sunday lunches sometimes during the week people would sometimes make time to enjoy lunch a little more than just a typical everyday lunch. They would usually refer this rare occasion as having a Ploughmans Lunch. Ploughman Lunch’s would usually consist of a group of people who decide to have a feast during lunch and they would usually head out to a pub for the pub to prepare their feast. The traditional Ploughmans Lunch would consist of a basketful of fruits and vegetables, bread and rolls, and the most important part would be the cheese.

The cheese is important because English people favorite their cheese in meals. The most popular kinds of cheese English people usually eat would be mature Cheddar cheese and chase it down with a pint of beer (Sixsmith 4). As you can see lunch plays an important role in the everyday lives of English people but the most important and most looked forward to meal of the day would be dinner. The time when all English people look forward to at the end of the long day at work would be dinner time.

This is because dinner is usually the time when the family is allowed to time to prepare a full course meal to enjoy (Andrews 75). A traditional dinner in Britain would be is considered to consist of any type of meat such as lamb, pork, or beef and two vegetables on the side. The side of vegetables usually varies from a lot of things. This would vary from potatoes, carrots, peas, cabbages, onions, salads, or a type of soup. But in England a traditional dinner is rarely eaten. This is because people stray away from the traditional and go to a typical kind of style.

The typical dinner in England would be food such as curry, which is an Indian food, and rice and pasta dish. But other than the foreign types of food English people eat they would make famous dishes such as Lancashire Hotpot, Bangers and Mash, Shepherd's Pie, Roast chicken with mashed potatoes and gravy, Toad in the Hole, Macaroni Cheese, Fish pie, and Steak and Kidney Pudding. These dishes would be the kinds of dishes you would see almost everywhere when you walk into a family having a typical everyday dinner (Riley 3). Dinner is also considered a very important time on a Sunday evening such as lunch.

On a Sunday, dinner is called The Sunday Roast because everything is usually prepared roasted such as the traditional meat like the lamb, pork, beef and chicken. Then the most important part about the Sunday Roast would be having time to be able to prepare special sauces for the meat. The types of sauces are horseradish sauce which would be eaten with the beef, sweet apple sauce with the pork and green mint sauce with the lamb. Then to top off the main course of the meal would be the famous choice for dessert which is the Yorkshire pudding (Sproule 113).

One of the most important part of an English persons life would be their culture and in the world of food their culture shines the brightest. In England people would go to places such a pubs or teashops. These kinds of places are unique to the culture of England because these places have been around centuries and centuries ago when England was first founded (Oddy 52). The most important social place for a typical Englishmen would be the pub. The pub could be used for a place to sleep, to a place to grab a quick meal, or a place to socialize with friends.

The pub is an aspect important to an everyday working Englishmen is because it offers them vacation away from their everyday typical lives. They can escape from the stress of working to support their family and the family itself. Going to a pub after a typical day from work is usually a religion to most Englishmen where they drink all their stress away and have fun. During the weekdays, after the pub, they would usually go home to their families for a home cooked meal often prepared by the women in the house. But on the weekends the men tend to enjoy themselves a little more.

Since the pub is also a small little inn men usually get drunk to a point where they would pass out and they would not return home until the next day (Davidson 34). Other than the pubs teashops are the places where more civilized socializing happens. In tea shops people would usually go during the day to have a nice cup of tea with friends of family. They would use this time to socialize and tea time is usually short compared to a sleepover at a pub. Either way people go to pubs and teashops to have social time with their friends or family (Grigson 45).

Food and drink becomes an important part of an everyday person either man, woman or child. Having time to eat or drink at a certain place builds social connections between people and more importantly between close friends or family. Without this time to socialize there would be no close bonds between people. So having this specific connection with food and drink is the foundation of English culture because it keeps the people connected which gives a sense of unity in the country and without that unity you can not build a culture. r

CASE STUDY ON ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR SUBMITTED TO:SUBMITTED BY: Prof. Navreet KaurSneha Bhalla M. B. A. Retail # 13037 ATTITUDE Many organisations are very concerned with the attitudes of their employees. Attitudes are evaluative statements-either favourable or unfavourable-about objects, people or events. They reflect how we feel about something. When an employee says, “I like my job,” he is expressing his attitude about work. Attitudes are complex in nature. They typically have three components: A. Cognitive component : The aspect of an attitude that is a description of or belief in the way things are.

B. Affective component : It is the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude and can lead to behavioural outcomes. C. Behavioral component : It is an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. The following case study discusses the importance of employee attitudes and how bringing about a change in them can change the performance of an organisation as a whole. ALBERTSONS WORKS ON EMPLOYEE ATTITUDES Albertsons is a huge grocery and drug company. It has more than 2400 supermarkets, and its Osco and Savon brands make it the fifth-largest drugstore company in the United states.

In a typical year, shoppers will make 1. 4 billion trips through its stores. Albertsons competes in tough businesses. Wal-Mart, in particular, has been eating away at its market share. With revenues flat and profits falling, the company hired Larry Johnston to turn the business around. Johnston came to Albertsons from General Electric. And it was while he was at GE that Johnston met a training specialist named Ed Foreman. Foreman endeared himself to Johnston when the latter hired Foreman to help him with a serious problem.

At the time, Johnston had been sent to Paris to fix GE Medical Systems’ European division. The division made CT scanners. Over the previous decade, four executives had been brought in to turn the division around and try to make it profitable. All had failed. Johnston responded to the challenge by initiating some important changes–he made a number of acquisitions, he closed down inefficient plants, and he moved factories to Eastern European countries to take advantage of lower labour costs. Then he brought in Ed Foreman to charge up the troops. After we got Ed in,” says Johnston, “people began to live their lives differently. They came to work with a spring in their step. ” In 3 years, the division was bringing in annual profits of 100$ million. Johnston gives a large part of the credit for this turnaround to Foreman. What is Foreman’s secret? He provides motivation and attitude training. Here’s an example of Foreman’s primary program-called the Successful Life Course. It lasts 3 days and begins each morning at 6 A. M. The first day begins with a chapter from an inspirational handout, followed by 12 minutes of yoga-like stretching.

Then participants march up a hill, chanting, “I know I can, I know I can. ” This is followed by breakfast and then a variety of lectures on attitude, diet, and exercise. But the primary focus of the program is on attitude. Says Foreman, “It’s your attitude, not your aptitude, that determines your altitude. ” Other parts of the program include group hugs, team activities, and mind-control relaxation exercises. Johnston believes strongly in Foreman’s program. “Positive attitude is the single biggest that can change a business, “says Johnston.

He sees Foreman’s program as being a critical bridge linking employees with customers: “We’re in the business of the maintenance and acquisition of customers. ” And with so many shoppers going through his stores, Johnston says this “provides a lot of opportunities for customer service. We’ve got to energize the associates. ” To prove he’s willing to put his money where his mouth is, Johnston has committed 10$ million to this training. By year-end 2004, 10000managers had taken the course. They, in turn, are training all 190000 Albertsons “associates,” with the help of tapes and books.

Foreman claims his program works. He cites success at companies like Allstate, Milliken & Co. , and Abbott Labs. “The goal is to improve mental, physical, and emotional well-being,” he says. “We as individuals determine the success of our own lives. Positive thoughts create positive actions. ” QUESTIONS : 1. Explain how Foreman’s 3-day course could positively influence the profitability of Albertsons. Foreman’s Primary program – called the “Successful Life Course” this course positively influenced Albertsons’ profitability and Behaviour of it’s employees.

This is a 3-day course that starts at 6am basically the impact of this course also is to train the employees to wake up early and their minds is fresh for a new learning experience, Followed by a 12 minutes of yoga-like stretching that makes the employees relax and energized for the start of the days’ activities, while marching up the hill, chanting “I know I can, I know I can” this will be tattooed on their minds in doing every work they know they can, and after this will follow breakfast and then variety of lectures in attitude, diet and exercise.

But basically the primary focus of the program is on attitude and he stated that “It’s your attitude, not your aptitude, that determines your altitude. ” Other parts of the program include group hugs, team activities, and mind control relaxation exercise. This program will definitely boost the determination of each employee to be more productive on their work and that will be reflected on the company’s profitability. 2. Johnston says, “Positive attitude is the single biggest thing that can change a business. How valid and generalizable do you think this statement is? “Positive attitude is the single best thing that can change a business” says and believe by Johnston, I agree, to this saying and I think this was valid, because employees have positive attitude have a positive effect on their job, they will be more productive and competitive to their work and they know how to handle problems, and solve it not before its to late.

Positive attitude makes a change in a business through its positive employees, a positive employee can handle pressure in work, can handle his or her emotion and could be or have a positive effect to his or her environment and co-employees. 3. If you were Johnston, what would you do to evaluate the effectiveness of your $10 million investment in Foreman’s training program?

Evaluating the effectiveness of my $10-million investment in Foreman’s Training program could be if the profit of the company could increase, if the program is effective this will reflect to the profitability of the company, another could be an employee rating each employee is rated accordingly to their productivity in work after and before taking the Foreman’s 3-day training program each employee is evaluated by their attitude on work, and another could be a customer care survey or a customer feedback survey that can help determine also the productivity of each employee and the relationship to the customers if the company could satisfy their needs and whether customers will be loyal to the company to know also where is the part of the company that needs improvements. 4.

If you were an Albertsons employee, how would you feel about going through Foreman’s course? Explain your position. If I would be an Albertsons’ employee I would feel good in attending this said program and feels’ good also and thankful to the company’s effort to improve my productivity. The effort of the company to improve it’s employees well being, attitude and productivity will definitely encourage each employee to give their best doing in return to the company’s success. Being in this company is a good thing because the company is open for  innovation and improving it’s employees well being not minding the cost or something in return but only minding the beneficial of a good productive employee.

http://omrchennairealestate. wordpress. com/2010/02/14/gst-road-vs-omr/ GST Road, on the other hand, has SEZ developments such as Mahindra, L&T , Shriram, etc, along with multiple industrial units being set up in the vicinity. This consequently allows for mixed developments to be witnessed along the stretch which caters to a larger strata of society . Presently, Rajiv Gandhi Salai is faced with an oversupply situation with vacancy levels greater than 45% while GST doesnt suffer from that problem.

Physical infrastructure is strong in both the locations with the recent upgradation of roads, although connectivity in GST is stronger owing to the Southern Railway line and its proximity to the airport. As State-run buses use the East Coast Road instead of Rajiv Gandhi Salai, lack of public transport continues to plague most stretches of the latter. GST Road also boasts of stronger social infrastructure such as schools, higher education institutions, retail space, hospitals , etc, in comparison with Rajiv Gandhi Salai.

However, social infrastructure in Rajiv Gandhi Salai is presently being established and as time progresses, is expected to strengthen further with more schools, hospitals, entertainment and retail centres. Both locations over the long term have the capability to be self-sustaining micro markets in Chennai, although the pace of the growth may vary. With the recent completion of the fourlane GST Road, additional infrastructure (such as rail and road over-bridges ) is expected in the near future.

In the present scenario, GST has an advantage as compared to Rajiv Gandhi Salai in terms of wholistic sustainable growth coupled with the presence of manufacturing and IT companies. Further, the development in this region is more spread out as compared to Rajiv Gandhi Salai as the latter is developed only on either side on the corridor. That said, Rajiv Gandhi Salai has the potential to develop and may emerge as a hotspot , depending on the pace of infrastructure developments in the region. Rental values for a 1,000 sqft apartment

GST Road – As can be seen in the tabulated column, one can expect to receive a rent anywhere between Rs6,500 to Rs10,000 for low-end apartments; Rs12,000 to Rs20,000 for middle-end apartments and Rs18,000 to Rs35,000 for luxury apartments. The hiked rentals result in the good connectivity of this road to the city, thanks to the suburban trains. Its proximity to the airport also plays a huge part in the spiked rental value of apartments here. -------------------------------------------------

Rajiv Gandhi Salai – Quality amenities in apartments play a pivotal role in perking up the rentals in this stretch. Often, the location of the apartment and its proximity to the city are factors that decide the value of the rent. Residents of this stretch are mostly BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) employees, essentially bachelors and spinsters on a transferable job. Students from across the country studying in colleges along this stretch also hold a share of the resident profile as do corporate guests.

The lack of public transport on this stretch is also a major cause of worry for potential investors who wish to rent out their apartments. It is all these factors that reduce the rental value of an apartment on this stretch, in comparison with that on GST Road. As the arterial highway connecting Tamil Nadu’s capital Chennai to the southern regions of the state, the Grand Southern Trunk Road — or GST Road as it is popularly known, was a silent witness to zipping buses and trucks, carrying loads of people and goods for years.

While Standard Motors, located on the southern outskirts of the city, had long stopped rolling out automobiles, the Madras Export Processing Zone (MEPZ), tucked a few km into the city on the stretch, was less glamorous to attract attention. In the mid-to-late 90s, when Ford and Visteon, along with a few auto component units set up base on the stretch, GST Road figured on the global automobile map, along with Sriperumbudur, which attracted the larger investment from Korean major Hyundai Motor. Today, there is a whole lot of new meaning for GST Road.

With four SEZs already approved and room for at least a couple more, it may soon turn out to be Chennai’s ‘SEZ Corridor’. Thanks to Infosys, which is setting up its largest development centre in Mahindra SEZ, GST Road now offers a fair mix of IT and manufacturing and has become a hub for property developers. “GST Road offers unparalleled accessibility and the best transportation infrastructure in Chennai in terms of connectivity as it is connected by road, rail  and air,” says Mr Ramesh Nair, local director, Jones Lang Lasalle Meghraj, which has bagged the marketing rights for the Shriram Gateway SEZ. GST Road is also in close proximity to thickly populated middle-income catchment zones like Tambaram, Chromepet and Pallavaram, besides Perungalathur, making it attractive to IT and BPO companies,” he added. Besides MEPZ, which houses several export units and is also offering space for IT Parks to come up, and Mahindra Global City SEZ, construction work has begun on Shriram Gateway and L&T Arun Excello SEZs on the stretch. In addition, India Land, which is building a large IT Park at Ambattur, is planning a mixed-use SEZ on GST Road. Unlike OMR and Sriperumbudur stretches, GST Road is the only place that has established infrastructure already in place. With a slew of SEZ projects underway, the stretch is fast developing into a kind of SEZ Corridor because of the availability of large tracts of land,” said Mr Rajesh Babu of leading property consultants, RECS Group. Sensing the emerging potential, leading property developers L&T Arun Excello launched ‘Estancia’, a large residential township, adjacent to their SEZ project. Akshaya Homes, which was an early bird on the OMR, has already moved into GST Road and launched a 520-unit residential township, Metropolis.

Hallmark Constructions too has just about launched its 2,000 unit residential project on the GST Road. “Besides established infrastructure, rail connectivity, which runs almost parallel to the road is the biggest advantage for GST Road. Several established educational institutions are well entrenched on the stretch,” industry sources said. “Unlike OMR, which is set to house just a couple of hotels, there are over half a dozen hotels already there or being planned,” they added. Source: The Economic Times Main Residential areas abutting GST Road between Kathipara and Chengalpattu St. Thomas mount Pazhavanthangal

Meenambakkam Pallavaram Chromepet Tambaram Perungalathur Vandalur Urapakkam Guduvancheri Potheri Kattangalathur Maraimalainagar Singaperumal koil Chengalpattu It sez http://www. indialand. net/chennaisez. aspx | IT SEZ, Chennai| | Go back <<| | | | | * The IT, ITES and Electronic Industries SEZ spread over across 500 acres is located in Padalam, Madurantakam Taluk close to GST Road about 65 kms south of Chennai City * Chennai is witnessing heavy growth in its southern and western peripheral areas, the Multi National companies situated near the site include Infosys, Ford Motors, BMW etc.

Numerous colleges and residential townships are coming up around this area * The SEZ is accessible from Chennai city and Chennai Airport through road (NH - 45 or GST Road) and rail, the nearest railhead being Karunguzhi station on the Chennai - Villupuram Section| ------------------------------------------------------------------ http://www. skyscrapercity. com/archive/index. php/t-1268823. html erungalathur, Vandalur, Urapakkam, Guduvancheri, Potheri, Kattankalathur, Maraimalai Nagar, Singaperumal Koil, Chengalpattu, all are now seeing lots of residential and industrial developments esp in the past 9-10 yrs.

I just did a simple population calc based on 2001 census data(rounded to nearest 1000).. Perungalathur -19000, Vandalur -13000, Urapakkam -14000, Guduvancheri - 27000, Potheri + Kattankalathur = 20000, Maraimalai Nagar= 49000, Singaperumal Koil = 8000, Chengalpattu = 63000. Total = 2,13,000 (2. 13 lakh) Mahindra World City, GST Road, Near Chengalpattu 1. MAHINDRA WORLD CITY Mahindra World City, New Chennai - Corporate India's first operational Special Economic Zone (SEZ) and India's first Integrated Business City is promoted by the Mahindra Group and TIDCO (Govt of Tamil Nadu Enterprise).

It is a public-private initiative Ascendas tech park 3. BMW 4. Infosys 5. WABCO TVS 2. SRM University SRM (Sri Ramaswamy Memorial) University, is a co-educational private university in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. The university has four campuses in Tamil Nadu at Kattangulathur, Kancheepuram district, Ramapuram, Vadapalani, Trichy and one in Modinagar, near Delhi. Previously functioning under Anna University, as SRM Engineering College, the institute gained deemed status in 2003-04, and was renamed SRMIST (SRM Institute of Science and Technology) and then eventually called SRM University.

The SRM University campus at Potheri in GST road is its main and biggest campus. Some pictures of the campus L&T Estancia, GST Road, Vallanchery, Guduvancheri ESTANCIA IT SEZ is a notified SEZ and the first project of its kind in Chennai, providing a totally integrated township for discerning IT professionals to work and live, away from the congestion and pollution of the city. Located on the GST (NH 45) Road in Guduvanchery, just a 20-minute drive from the airport, it is spread over an area of 82 acres. Surrounded by lakes and hills it already has a resort like environment.

Adding to the natural beauty will be the landscaped campus of Estancia, serene and environmental friendly, to accommodate around 50,000 people. Estancia will consist of three major components developed under three SPVs, promoted by the Larsen & Toubro Limited and Arun Excello Infrastructure Pvt Ltd. , 27 acres IT Special Economic Zone (SEZ) with 3. 04 M sq. ft of office space. 41 acres Residential Gated Township with over 2000 apartments 11 acres Commercial and retail development with a Hotel Service apartment (By Holiday Inn) and a Mall cum Multiplex. 3 acres for a school run by Vidya Mandir (Mylapore).

The total project, spread over approx. 82 acres is expected to be completed in two phases by 2010 or even earlier as per demand. World-renowned architects RMJM of UK, have created the master plan and designed each building, keeping modern international practices of township layouts in mind. Strata a subsidiary of RMJM has created the landscapes. Estancia will no doubt rival similar townships in Singapore and Hong Kong in scale and grandeur on completion. Ford India Factory Ford India has its factory at GST Road, Maraimalai nagar. Shriram Gateway Shriram Properties Limited in joint venture with SUN-Apollo is developing a 4. million sf mixed use development project in the erstwhile standard motor property. Out of the 4,800,000 sq ft (446,000 m2), 3,600,000 sq ft (334,000 m2) will be under SEZ called 'The Gateway' in GST Road, Perungalathur. The Gateway is spread over an area of 57. 94 acres (234,500 m2) and will comprise an IT SEZ, retail mall, multiplex & serviced apartments. Companies that have leased space in the Gateway: * Accenture - has leased up 4. 60 lakh sq. ft. * Mahindra Satyam - has leased up 2. 10 lakh sq. ft. * Take Solution- has leased 1. 0 lac sft * Mobius, * Trianz, * Sybrant Technologies * Redington * Congruent, http://www. mdachennai. gov. in/listofsubprojects2. html B. Construction of Road Over Bridges (ROB) and Road Under Bridges (RUB) 21. Construction of RUB in lieu of LC4 between Villivakkam and Ambattur 22. Construction of RUB in lieu of LC6 between Thiruvottiyur and Ennore 23. Construction of ROB in lieu of LC 32 & 33 between Tambaram and Vandalur 24. Construction of R. O. B. in lieu of L. C. 4 in between Tiruvotriyur – Ennore (Near Tiruvotriyur Railway Station) 25. Construction of R. O. B. in lieu of L. C. 47 in between Guduvanchery and Singaperumalkoil Rly. Station 26. Construction of R. O. B. in lieu of L. C. in between Tondiarpet and Thiruvottiyur 27. Construction of R. O. B. in lieu of L. C. 14 in between Tirunindravur – Tiruvallur (Near Sevvaipet Railway Station) 28. Construction of R. O. B. in lieu of L. C. 40 in between Vandalur Guduvancheri on Madambakkam Adanur Padappai Road 29. Construction of R. O. B. in lieu of L. C. 5 in between Villivakkam - Ambattur (Near Pattravakkam Railway Station) C. Construction of Pedestratin Subways. 30. Pedestrian Subway at TVS on Anna salai 31. Pedestrain Subway at Anna Salai - Theagaraya Road Junction 32. Pedestrain Subway at Periyar Salai - Evening Bazar Road Junction D.

Construction of Grade Seperators. 33. Combined Flyover at Annasalai for General Patters road junction and Spencers Junction (From 2/4 - 3/2 G. S. T. Road) 34. Combined Flyover at Annasalai from Eldams road junction to C. I. T. Nagar 1st main road (km 6/0-8/6 of G. S. T. road) 35. Grade Separator at the twin junctions on Periyar EVR Salai at Anna Nagar Arch MEPZ SEZ established in 1984,[2] Mahindra World City, New Chennai, Shriram's Gateway SEZ, Estancia SEZ, ETL Infrastructure and India Land SEZ. http://www. commonfloor. com/arun-estancia-chennai/povp-pyikbo | | | Basic Cost for 3rd Level

From 4th to 12th Level an incremental value of Rs. 20/- per sq. ft. per Level will be charged. | Rs. 3,950/- per sq. ft| Basic Cost (From Level - 1,2,13th to 17th)| Rs. 4,450/ sq. ft| Registration, E. B. deposit, Legal  ; Documentation, Infrastructure and Amenities Charges| Rs. 425/- per sq. ft (all Levels)| Car Park| Rs. 2,00,000/-| Corpus Fund| Rs. 75,000/- *| Club House Membership fee| Rs. 1,25,000/- *| Maintenance fee payable for 3 years in advance| Rs. 2. 50 / sq. ft / Month *| Service Tax| Extra as applicable| | | Sraraswathi saw mill AMBIKA WOOD INDUSTRIES SDNB VAISHNAV ARTS AND SCIENCE MIT

National Institute Of Siddha Standard Motor Factory Ponds India Ltd TTK Health Care Kishkinta Anna zoological Park Cresent Engineering college Sankara Vidayalya Urrpakkam High school Royal wear international ltd Skylim infotech pvt ltd HIELDERBERG INDIA Abode Valley ARM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY CENTIGRADE APPARELS PVT LTD UCAL FUEL SYSTEMS LTD MIDAS RUBBER LTD SPEL SEMI CONDUCTORS International components India Ltd Areva Bio energy India Ltd Texcel international limited Renault Nissan Technology Mind tree Tambaram As of the 2001 Indian census[4], Tambaram had a population of 137,609.

Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Tambaram has an average literacy rate of 78%, higher than the national average of 65%: male literacy is 82%, and female literacy is 74%. In Tambaram, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. The number of people below the poverty line is 9,171. http://www. hindu. com/pp/2008/01/26/stories/2008012650140900. htm Growth mode: Chennai has emerged as the second largest office market in the country. The year 2007 was another record year for the Chennai Office real estate market with approximately 7. 1 million square feet of office space being absorbed.

This is a growth of over 40% as compared to 2006 which saw an absorption of around 5 million square feet reiterating Chennai’s position as the second largest office market in the country after Bangalore and one of the most sought after IT and BPO destinations in the world. Very few office real estate markets in the world have undergone such a dramatic and rapid change in such a short span of time as the Chennai office market in the last 4 years. Major transactions in the SBD included EDS Mphasis, IBM, CSC and Symantec leasing space in DLF IT Park @ Chennai, Pfizer and Lionbridge leasing space in Ascendas ITPC Phase 2.

Major transactions in the PBD included Accenture leasing space at Shriram Gateway, HCL in ETA Techno Park, Mindtree in Ascendas Mahindra City and EBay in Futura. Major transactions in the CBD were RR Donnelley and Oracle leasing space in Acropolis, ABN Amro and JLLM leasing space in TVH Belicaa Towers and Sony Ericsson leasing space in Sterling Towers. Chennai is witnessing a sustained real estate demand that has largely been a result of growth spearheaded by a spurt in the knowledge sector largely comprising of the IT /ITES segments. Mount Poonamalle Road and GST Road have emerged as alternative IT destinations to Old Mahabalipuram Road.

Although supply has outstripped demand in 2007, most of the vacancy was seen in STPI IT Parks. The yield levels stabilized at 10% to 11 %. Developers and land owners should realise that projects in Chennai are not just competing with each other but also with projects from other competing low cost cities such as Bangalore, Hyderabad and Pune. Therefore stability in rentals and low operating costs are important to maintain Chennai’s position as one of the most preferred IT destinations in India. Outlook With the current vacancy of less than 0. 5% and limited future supply in the CBD, the rentals are expected to further increase by around 20%.

The rentals in the PBD are expected to stabilize given the quantum of supply coming into the market in 2008. However, SEZ rentals are expected to go up in 2008 as the quantum of SEZ space coming up in 2008 is very limited. Developers offering SEZ space in 2008 will find ready takers. Also the emergence of satellite townships are expected to change absorption dynamics. The oversupply situation may not be as bad as it was expected, given that the self correction phase has started with developers slowing down the their construction and changing usage of their projects expecting a market correction.

STPI buildings in close proximity to SEZ projects could get impacted, unless STPI is extended beyond 2009. The demand for Serviced offices or business centres is expected to increase. Retail No new malls were completed in the last one year in Chennai. Inspite of nearly 8. 5 million sft of retail mall space under planning or construction, the overall supply addition in 2007 was negligible. Significant preleasing activity was witnessed in malls under construction a clear pointer to the fact that there is still enough unmet demand for retail space in the city.

The vacancy levels in high street was also at its lowest given the limited space availability. This shortage of space pushed the rentals up by 20% in 2007. High street leasing activity further increased in locations such as R K Salai and Arcot Road. Given the shortage of space and spiralling rentals, many retailers have found it difficult to acquire space of the right size at the right location at the right price in Chennai. Only 2 reasonably sized malls currently exist in Chennai – Spencer Plaza with 5. 6 lakh sft of retail space and operational since 1991 and Chennai City Centre measuring 3. 5 lakh sft which has been operational since 2006. Most of the organized retailers in these malls have been successful due to the lack of competition, short supply of mall space in Chennai and the current CBD location. Around 15 new malls totaling 8. 5 million sft is expected to be operational in the next 3 years. The majority of these malls are located in the CBD, Old Mahababalipuram Road, GST Road and Velachery. However, some mall developers need to realize that at current rentals, retailers will find it difficult to sustain their business in the medium term.

At present the CBD and suburbs such as Velachery and Anna Nagar definitely hold good potential for malls. GST Road and OMR are expected to evolve as mall locations in the medium term given the fact that primary catchment zones are still growing in these corridors. Most of the upcoming malls are expected to do well, given the fact that these malls are spread out in different directions – in the centre, west, south east and south west. Also the existing mall space is negligible compared to NCR, Mumbai and Bangalore. A number of factors have contributed to the current mall boom in the city.

Chennai has been the pioneer in organized retail from early 1990’s. The penetration of organized players especially in the food segment is quite high. Favourable demographics, rising disposable incomes, growing middle classes, rise of “super rich”, Increased double income no kids (DINKs) families, returning NRI’s, shift from “saving” to “spending” mentality, domestic retailers consolidating and aggressively expanding and new market entrants have all contributed to this growth. Most of the new malls have received good response and anchor tenants are already in place.

Retail in Chennai has traditionally been of the high street retail format and is still evolving and getting more structured. There has always been a scarcity of good quality retail space due to the unavailability of land in the concentrated retail hubs. The ground coverage rules of CMDA, whereby FSI decreases with increase in ground coverage is another one of the reasons why developers have not gone for mall construction. Outlook High Street rentals are further expected to go up by around 15% given the short supply of space.

Net addition to mall space in 2008 is expected to be only 600,000 sft with Ampa Mall and Coromandel Plaza being completed. Many malls which were expected to be completed in 2008 and 2009 is further expected to be pushed further due to delay in planning approvals and slow speed of construction. In the future, the size of a mall will definitely play an important role but size has to be proportionate to the catchment. Given the width of experience and depth of product offering expectations from a shopper, large malls will definitely have an advantage over smaller malls.

Mall developers need to analyze the characteristics of the catchment in detail before finalizing on the size and tenancy mix. Developers need to realize that sustaining a mall is more important than developing one and focus on areas such as Mall Management. Due consideration should also be given to issues such as circulation, parking and experience. The author is a Managing Director with Jones Lang LaSalle Meghraj http://timesofindia. indiatimes. com/city/chennai/Migration-to-Chennai-follows-industrial-growth-but-quality-of-life/articleshow/5798687. cms he idea of a special economic zone is perhaps more than 100 years old in the region.

The East India Company was the first to come up with a plan to create an enclave that offered a 30-year tax exemption for those who settled near Fort St George and traded with them. Today, the state offers similar benefits inside SEZs — tax breaks, quick clearance of paperwork, infrastructure facilities, with the idea of attracting both investors and  working populations. Chennai's demographics have reflected the fact that people always move where the work is. "Till 1975, people migrated from the other southern states to Chennai primarily in search of work in mineral-based industries," says DLF executive vice-president K K Raman.

But with the emergence of the knowledge sector post 1991, a number of large players in the telecom, software and banking sectors have set up offices here. Although the 2001 census put the city's population at 42. 16 lakh, the agglomeration that has developed around Chennai is estimated to be nearly twice that. Roughly 25% of the country's 18 lakh IT workforce is located in Chennai and the city earns about Rs 36,000 crore annually through software exports. "Of late, north Indians have started moving to Chennai for core industrial jobs, especially in the auto sector," says Raman.

The growth of Chennai's population has been linked to the development of its outlying areas. In the book 'Madras – The Land, People and Their Governance', Dr C Chandramouli says emergence of satellite towns is one of the main reasons for population growth, with people moving from the centre of the city to the periphery. Settlements have mirrored industrial development — between 1971 and 1981, the highest population growth was in Ambattur, Madhavaram, Meenambakkam and Poonamallee, where manufacturing industries were coming up.

By 2001, population had doubled in Maduravoyal, Pallikaranai, Okkiyam Thoraipakkam and Neelankarai, south and west of the city, close to the IT and GST corridors and Sriperumbudur. Chennai's education system provides a steady stream of skilled labour as well as attracts migrants who want good schools for their children. "This will add to the working population," says Ramesh Nair, MD, Jones Lang LaSalle Meghraj, a realty consultant. This will squeeze the city's resources further. "There's no housing or schools in the industrial hubs," says B Santhanam, MD, Saint Gobain. People have no choice but to live in Chennai and commute, adding to the pressure on resources," he says. "Social infrastructure has not kept up with industrial growth. " Planners say there should be an effort to address the lack of housing and road space. "New colonies like Anna Nagar and Ashok Nagar were created to cater to a growing middle-class workforce," says AN Sachithanandan, expresident, Institute of Town Planners of India. Since there was land, the colonies came up with well-laid out roads and other amenities. But the land value was so high only top executives could afford it," he says. In the next 10 years, Chennai's population is expected to touch 10 million, making it a mega city. Chennai Corporation, with an area of 176 sq km, will accommodate 59 lakh people while the rest of the metropolitan area of 1,013 sq km will have 66 lakh by 2026. Planners have begun to reclassify agricultural land around the city as residential zones in a bid to disperse the population, but large investments are still needed to boost educational, healthcare, recreation and civic amenities. The government has the vision to build industrial parks, but more is needed — you need to encourage people to live where the work is, and to do that you need schools, hospitals, affordable housing, mass transportation systems," says Kumar Subramaniam, MD, Sanmina SCA, in Oragadam. Read more: Migration to Chennai follows industrial growth, but quality of life? - The Times of India http://timesofindia. indiatimes. com/city/chennai/Migration-to-Chennai-follows-industrial-growth-but-quality-of-life/articleshow/5798687. cms#ixzz1DjAJ6VKY http://www. bidtobuyhome. com/trends_in_major_markets. php

The Indian economy and the real estate sector in particular are high on its ride to prosperity. As India’s economic growth curve rises, real estate in India has emerged as one of the most appealing investment areas for domestic as well as foreign investors. Indian real estate has huge potential demand in almost every sector, especially commercial, residential, retail, industrial, hospitality, healthcare etc. But maximum growth is attributed to its growth from the booming IT sector, since an estimated 70 per cent of the new construction is for the IT sector. Investment scenario has certainly undergone a paradigm shift in India.

Gone are the days when potential investors used to seek investment options like equity bonds and park money in shares where the return ranges between 5. 55 to 6%. Data showcased by property surveys show that returns from rental incomes on investment in commercial property in Indian metros, is around 10. 5%, the highest in the world. Key Facts 1. Selling and buying Indian property is now considered the most profitable and attractive business opportunity in the present real estate scenario in India. New demands have added to strength of real estate markets across the commercial, residential and retail sectors in India.

Not surprisingly, demand for Indian property has been increasing steadily for the past few years and it has exceeded supply. There has also been an upward swing on the real estate price values in the recent years. Due to the huge demand and rising prices, investment and speculative interest in real estate is growing while excess money supply, stock market gains and policy changes are adding to the trend in favor of the real estate sector. 2. In the last one year, the capital values of the commercial office spaces has increased by up to 40% owing to the increase in the demand from IT / ITES and BPO sector across major metros in India. . India has a distinct regulatory and financing management in place. 4. Real estate boom in India is supported by its own flourishing economy on a sustainable basis. Here, growth of the property market is not a result of renovation and overhauling; but rapid development that witness for India riding the high growth wave. Lower interest rates, easy availability of housing finance, burgeoning income and better job prospects, increase of nuclear families have given a boost to the demand for residential properties in India.

The net yields (after accounting for all outgoings) on residential property are currently at 4-6% p. a. However, these investments have benefited from the improving residential capital values. As such, investors can count on potential capital gains to improve their overall returns. Capital values in the residential sector have risen by about 25-40% p. a in the last 2 years. The retail market in India has been growing due to increasing demand from retailers, higher disposable incomes and opening up of FDI in Retail. The capital appreciation in this sector is close to 20-35% p. . After their cyclical upheaval in 2008, the real estate markets across India seem to have stabilized in the last two months, and at present reflect a more mature market. The increase in prices witnessed in 2009 can be majorly attributed to the realization that extreme pessimism was unwarranted and had led to bargains and opportunities which were exploited by astute investors. All major markets across India are witnessing extremely high rates of urbanization, which is still considerably low as compared to advanced nations.

The year 2010 is expected to be a challenging one as opportunities for easy money are few and far between and this will enable stronger industry players to emerge even stronger. From a development perspective, some of the new corridors in established markets as well as newly emerged and emerging markets for residential real estate are highlighted below: Established Markets – New Corridors| Newly Emerged Markets| Emerging Markets| Mumbai – Navi Mumbai Pune – Mundwa, Kharadi, Wakad, Rawet,Hinjewadi and Hadapsar Bangalore – North East Corridor Hyderabad – Uppal, Papanguda and Shamsabad Corridor

NCR – Greater Noida and Golf Course Extension in Gurgaon Chennai – GST Road touching Pallavaram,Mount Poonamalle| Chandigarh Jaipur Kolkata Kochi| Bhubaneswar Nagpur Mysore Mangalore Coimbatore| Chennai Chennai, the largest city in South India, is known for its efficient infrastructure and has seen sustained real estate demand that has largely been the result of growth spearheaded by a spurt in the knowledge sector comprising the IT and BPO led businesses. Many of the IT companies that have a presence in Bangalore maintain a secondary or tertiary presence in Chennai.

One of the main considerations for this move is the proximity to Bangalore, which makes disaster recovery and the management of resources easier. Chennai has also witnessed the entry of financial giants such as the Government Investment Corporation of Singapore investing in its residential real estate market, driven by the relaxation of FDI norms in real estate. The market is performing in sync with the national trend of increasing end-user investments in housing. As companies grow and expand to suburban areas, a corresponding growth in the residential segment has followed.

The growth is especially strong along GST Road and Rajiv Gandhi Salai, with the presence of pan Indian developers. The residential market is likely to continue to see a lot of activity, both in the sale and leasing segments. As the supply of apartments starts steadily increasing, prices will continue to remain stable in the foreseeable future. The IT and BPO industries, which have become the prime drivers of the real estate market in Chennai and also led to a significant migrant population in the city, are driving the demand for apartments and high-rises which was previously negligible.

High-end projects continue to be developed although, after the downturn and stabilization of prices, developers are focusing on launching more mid-end projects http://www. credaincr. org/archive_news_details. php? nid=5380&m=4&y=2010 Humongous Demand of Affordable housing in Chennai suburbs Indian Realty News The city is fast expanding, and proof of this is the fact that about 7,000 housing units are developed in Chennai Metropolitan Area (CMA) annually. More than 95% of them are promoted in the suburbs. Still, the city faces a shortage of more than one lakh houses.

At least 50% of them are in the affordable housing segment and going by the present pace of development, this shortfall could mount to eight lakh units in the next 15 years as per Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) estimates. The primary concern of most prospective apartment buyers is that there isn’t enough supply of affordable houses. Whenever a builder promotes budget housing project, it gets sold out fast. Akshaya MD T Chitty Babu says he had to sit in his office till late in the night to accept bookings when he launched a budget housing project on OMR last year.

Plaza group, which launched a 176 apartment project at Perumbakkam, off OMR, last month, sold out the entire stock in five hours. JBM Dakshin, which launched a 120-apartment project in the Rs 15-42 lakh price bracket on the GST Road last month, sold the entire lot in two days. Every promoter of budget housing has a similar story to narrate. “A real estate boom in Chennai is led by a locality. In 1998, it was Velachery. The 2006 boom was led by OMR. Next, it is a race between GST Road and Sriperumbudur,” said Chethan Jhabakh, partner, JBM Dakshin.

All the three growing corridors — OMR, GST Road and Sriperumbudur — had specific triggers for their development. “For OMR, it was Tata Consultancy Services setting up shop at Semmancheri, for GST Road, it was Ford starting its factory at Maraimalainagar, and for Sriperumbudur, it was the Hyundai factory at Irungattukottai,” said Ramesh Nair, MD, Jones Lang LaSalle Meghraj, an international realty consultant. Irrespective of attractions like employment potential in new industries, there has been substantial migration from the city to the suburbs in the last 20 years.

CMDA estimates that about 10 lakh move out of the city into suburbs every decade. This is the fallout of conversion of residential space into nonresidential for uses, such as offices, shops and hotels within the core city. It leaves the rest of the residential space unaffordable for middle-income groups, who escape to the suburbs. Lack of social infrastructure is a cause of worry. Though integrated townships, which which provide everything from schools, and healthcare to malls and multiplexes, like Hiranandani Palace Garden at Oragadam, Estancia on GST Road, and DLF on OMR are being developed, there aren’t similar facilities in stand-alone esidential projects. http://www. credaincr. org/research_details. php? r_id=4 Special Economic Zones (SEZs): Opportunities Unlimited for Developers * Under the new SEZ Policy, formal approvals have been granted to 366 SEZ proposals * 142 have already been notified as SEZs, as on 30th August 2007 * Fiscal benefits to IT Parks expected to come to an end in 2009; SEZs likely to be preferred for * IT/ITeS commercial office space development * Policy allows usage of as high as 50% of area as non-processing zone, offering immense potential for residential & other support infrastructure.

Listings posted with Magicbricks. com between July and September 2010 reveal that the top ten localities which posted maximum listings were T Nagar,Velacheri, Porur, Adyar, Ambathur, ECR, Kolathur, OMR Road, Besant Nagar and Virugambakkam. Requirements posted on MagicBricks. com reveal that 2 BHK multi-storey apartments are most in demand followed by 3 BHK and 1 BHK apartments. Overall,the supply was highest in the 2 BHK and 3 BHK categories with multi-storey apartments posting maximum listings comprising 52 per cent of the total supply.

However, on comparing the demand and supply data,a mismatch was observed in the number of available options as compared to the demand especially in the 1 BHK and 2 BHK segments where the demand outstrips the supply. The 1 BHK category, which caters to the affordable housing segment,is where the mismatch lies. The demand is robust but options are limited. On the other hand,in the 3 BHK segment, there is a significant supply of multi-storey apartments with little demand to absorb the existing housing stock.

When an investor looks at regular returns out of a residential real estate investment,this is a critical parameter to consider. The smaller units have more demand and are easier to lease out. The demand for bigger units is limited. Localities such as Adyar,T Nagar and OMR posted 2 BHK and 3 BHK  apartments  within a higher price range ( 100 lakh and above), while localities such as Ambattur and Kolathur posted more affordable options ( 18-30 lakh). Residential projects comprised 23 per cent of the total supply and maximum listings were posted in the 3 BHK category.

However,requirements posted with Magicbricks. com indicated that the demand was highest in the 2 BHK category which is not being met adequately by the existing housing stock. In the 3 BHK category on the other hand,there is an over supply. The market demand has moved in the direction of apartments. The traditional fixation of standalone property is fast giving place to modern apartments with latest amenities and lifestyles. When one buys a property,the constraints of price are a big consideration.

However,for the occupant,the rental options are as wide and scattered as he or she is willing to look for. In the residential segment,there exists a significant demand for more premium options of 4 and 5 BHK categories which are adequately met by the existing housing stock as indicated by listings posted with MagicBricks. com. The premium segment is well catered to and even the rental market in this segment is mature and well-established. In the rental housing category catering to young and mobile professionals,furnished property fetches better values.

Most lessees prefer to move into a new city into furnished accommodation. In cities such as Gurgaon, Delhi and Bangalore,where the workforce is very young,the escalation in rental values from furnished property can be as high as 35-50 per cent. Times of India epaper, 27 November 2010 Real estate industry in India is currently estimated to be US$ 16 billion with a CAGR of 30%. Growth in this sector is driven primarily by IT/ITeS, growing presence of foreign businesses in India, the globalization of Indian corporate and rapidly increasing consumer class.

Commercial Office Space Growth Drivers * Growth in IT/ITES sector at 30% annually (Source: NASSCOM) * Significant growth in FDI Market Structure * Dominated by a few large national developers with pan-India presence * Regional players are expanding to achieve a Pan-India presence * Shift in the type of operations from Sale Model to Lease & Maintain Model Segmentation * Commercial Space can be classified broadly into Grade A and B * Business activity shifting from CBD to SBD and from Tier I to Tier II & III Outlook Commercial market expected to grow at CAGR of 20-22% over the next 5 years * IT/ITeS sector expected to require in excess of 250 million sq. ft of commercial office space by 2012-13 Residential Rising Urbanisation in India Rapid Urbanisation: Urban Population expected to touch 590 million by 2030 Growth Drivers * Decreasing Household size: Average H/h size fell from 5. 4 in 1981 to 5. 1 in 2000 * Increasing working age population (Almost 64% in 16-64 age group) * Increasing income levels: Average salary levels increased by 13. 5% in 2005 * Easier access to mortgage, long tenure loans and tax incentives Market Structure Highly fragmented and unorganized * Regional players are expanding to achieve a Pan-India presence http://www. credaincr. org/research_details. php? r_id=4 ------------------------------------------------- Profiling GST, OMR and Oragadam September 18, 2010apartment ownerLeave a comment HOLISTIC LIVING With rising population,integrated townships are poised to be the next big thing in Chennai,even as suburbs in the city play host to a number of such projects. RADHIKA RAMASWAMY visits three important corridors in the city to find out more GRAND SOUTHERN TRUNK (GST)

The 20-kilometre stretch from Tambaram to Maraimalai Nagar on GST Road could well be mistaken to be within city limits. Such is the development here. GST Road has been touted as a premium industrial corridor and connects all the Southern districts of the State to Chennai via both road and rail. Home to manufacturing giants, IT majors, schools and colleges, the road, over the past three years, has turned into a commercial hub of sorts. One of the first companies to set up its unit on GST Road was Team (Team co Hitech Enginering Ltd) in Vandalur (20 years ago).

This was followed by a series of developments in and around Maraimalai Nagar. Mahindra World City,an integrated township,spread across 1,500 acres,developed in the year 2000 transformed the landscape of GST and triggered the growth of integrated townships in this area. Arun Excello’s Estancia and Shriram Properties’ The Gateway are upcoming integrated projects here. ”While OMR is IT-centric, GST is a mix of IT, telecom, automobile and ancillary units,”says P Suresh,MD,Arun Excello. ”The city has reached a saturation point in terms of significant residential development.

With Chennai expanding and peripheral areas playing host to large-scale industrial boom,self-contained townships have become the order of the day. ” OLD MAHABALIPURAM ROAD (OMR) The OMR phenomenon occurred in the late 90s. What was once a stretch with green patches and large land parcels on either side of the road has evolved into a premier IT corridor. Tidel Park was the first IT establishment to foray into OMR,which is now called Rajiv Gandhi Salai. This was followed by the mushrooming of several other IT parks. Today,over 2. 7 lakh people work out of here. The IT boom led to an unprecedented residential demand along the stretch and several residential projects have come up since 2000,”says K K Raman,Vice-President,DLF Homes “Nobody has the time or the energy to go to far-away places for entertainment and recreation. People prefer everything right from education to healthcare centres in the vicinity of their homes. This is where integrated townships come into play. An integrated township is not just about a home. It is about creating a lifestyle that takes care of every single need of the resident. ”DLF Homes is coming up with a 58-acre ntegrated township project called Garden City in Shollinganalur. Over the next two years,the number of people working in OMR is expected to cross four lakhs. With this,the demand for gated communities will only increase. There are currently over five full-fledged integrated townships on OMR. ORAGADAM AND SRIPERUMBUDUR Oragadam,centrally located between Grand Southern Trunk and NH4,has been touted as Chennai’s largest and the most developed industrial belt. With over 22 Fortune 500 companies (of which six are global car manufacturers),the Sriperumbudur-Oragadam belt has seen tremendous industrial growth in less than four years.

The area is well-connected via road and rail and according to industry experts,the presence of automobile giants like Renault and Nissan and Ford has triggered growth around Oragadam. Several manufacturing giants such as Motorola, Dell, Flextronics, Samsung, Nokia, Apollo Tyres,and TVS Electronics,have set up their respective units in the industrial belt stretching from Sriperumbudur to Oragadam. Three integrated townships – Arun Excello’s Temple Green,Hiranandani (Hirco Group)’s Palace Garden and Inno Geo City are being developed in Oragadam.

Aniruddha Joshi,Executive Director,Hirco Group,Says, “Today,owning a home in the city has become cumbersome and costly. The only solution to the spiralling price and increasing interest rates on home loans is to own a property in an integrated township coming up in the outskirts of the city. The new industrial corridor foraying into places like Oragadam will generate new jobs and will attract people to relocate out of Chennai. Our township will provide them with homes that are located conveniently close by. We are building the whole infrastructure from the ground up – roads,electrical power,telecommunications backbone,water and sanitation.

By doing so,we reduce our townships dependence on the public infrastructure and make them self-sustaining – a key differentiator in a country where the public infrastructure is under considerable pressure. ”That apart,today’s buyer profile consists mainly of young people,who want to fulfil their aspirations at the earliest. Moreover,these buyers want all this,within the constraints of a certain level of pricing. Townships are an ideal option for such buyers,due to the inherent advantages of economies of scale – they offer various amenities,at relatively lower price points.

Times Property, Times of India, 18 September 2010 Should Intergrated Townships be accorded an infrastructure status HARINI SRIRAM records points of view from people who matter. Consider this: Our country currently has a housing shortage to the tune of 24. 72 million. Of this, Tamil Nadu has a shortage of 2. 8 million and Chennai, 0. 4 million. One way of bridging the gap is by developing self-contained residential clusters complete with ameneties - roads, schools, parks, hospitals, retail outlets, etc. It is here that integrated townships come in.

Since provision of all these amenities translates into infrastructure development, developers suggest that infrastructure status be conferred on integrated townships. P Suresh,MD, Arun Excello,says, “We provide amenities like telephone exchange, water treatment plants, build infrastructure for schools, hospitals,water supply and so on. Besides,we pay an infrastructure fee to the government,when,in fact,the infrastructure is developed by us! ” Some of the benefits that developers will be entitled to, if infrastructure status is accorded to townships,include tax holidays and access to preferential lending at lower interest rates.

That apart, funding of such projects will also become relatively hassle-free. In its rule book, the government classifies roads,bridges,dams,power projects,airports and transport corridors,to name a few,as infrastructure. But roads within townships, for instance, are currently not eligible for infrastructure status. Oscar Braganza, Executive Director, Real Estate and SEZ, Marg  Ltd, explains, “We need to first look at what really defines a township. Townships need to have social infrastructure, learning components and must be holistic cities by themselves.

Oscar continues, Integrated townships need to be of a certain size and have specific amenities to qualify as a township. Only then will it make sense to confer infrastructure status on them. ”He explains,”By 2030,it is estimated that 300 million people will move from rural to urban areas in the country. There’s a dearth of space in existing cities. The only solution is to build new cities, in the outskirts of existing cities, and this can be done effectively through partnership with the government. ” In places like Delhi,for instance,the government created spaces for townships which have now grown to become Gurgaon and

Noida. Even in Tamil Nadu,townships like SPIC Nagar in Thoothukudi,Salem Steel Plant Township, Neyveli Lignite Corporation Township,etc,were developed long ago and are managed by the corresponding companies. Rajesh Babu,Chief Consultant, RECS Group, a city-based real estate consultancy service, is of the view that development in Chennai needs to be planned and organised. “When private players get into development of townships,growth tends to be scattered, but the city will expand in all directions and the government will take notice and work on provision of infrastructure.

The government should specify norms and guidelines for townships and must accord infrastructure status to them accordingly. “He adds that the government needs to acquire land for townships,provide amenities – roads,lung spaces,transport,etc,and assign residential/commercial development to developers. K Moses, Head, Sales and Marketing,VME Group, a city-based construction activities firm, is also of the opinion that the government needs to help with infrastructure development within townships.

He says, “It will help if infrastructure status is accorded to townships,as any cost the developer pays is finally passed on to the end user. ” Property Times, Times of India, 18 September 2010 Houses for weaker sections to come up near Vandalur Published by Newsroom September 8th, 2009 in City Scape, Affordable Housing - Newand Newsbytes. Chennai: The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) plans to make use of a 50-metre strip of vacant land along the proposed Outer Ring Road from Vandalur to Minjur to build houses for economically weaker sections.

Addressing a seminar organised here by the Confederation of Real Estate Developers’ Associations of India (CREDAI) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) on Saturday, CMDA Member Secretary Vikram Kapur said, “Guidelines are being prepared on provision of TDR (transferable development rights) of 20 sq m to slum dwellers affected by urban infrastructure projects for resettlement. ” Rehabilitation of slum dwellers in Chennai alone may require Rs. 2,000 crore and 700 acres. Additional demand was there on account of renewal or redevelopment of dilapidated structures and meeting the needs of the homeless pavement dwellers.

As there was a severe shortage of basic services and budgetary resources, the focus was on multiple stakeholders to promote public-private partnerships for ensuring equitable supply of land, shelter and services at affordable prices to all, he said. Mr. Kapur reiterated that the State government had taken various initiatives through regulatory mechanisms such as reservation for EWS/LIG in new layouts and group housing on sites exceeding one hectare. As there were limitations for parastatal agencies such as TNHB and TNSCB in catering to the demand for affordable housing due to paucity of land, funds and manpower, Mr.

Kapur pointed to the scope for a greater role for the private sector in this regard. Principal Secretary Housing and Urban Development Department Surjit K. Chaudhary said builders’ attitude should change. “Rather than catering to the high-end segment they should serve the weaker sections. The government is ready to accept good recommendations of the builders and other stakeholders. ” President of CREDAI-Tamil Nadu Prakash Challa said: “As the entire demand few years ago came from a certain segment seeking premium apartments, private developers had to cater to the segment.

New initiatives on meeting the emerging demands for affordable housing will be taken up. ” Source: The Hindu havana Acharya Following a boom , the realty sector is now hit by lower repayment capacity and higher borrowing costs, which have affected house buying. Developers across the country are facing lower demand, slower sales and reduced and expensive funding. How has the Chennai residential market fared? Chennai City has seen an average correction in apartment prices of around 10 per cent over the past six months, according to realty market participants.

The correction is driven by what buyers are willing to pay now rather than actual rate cuts by developers. This being said, the main city areas and the central business districts have remained relatively unaffected, given the advantage of location and lack of developable space. It is the suburbs and the peripheral areas such as Ambattur, an industrial suburb to the west of the city; along the OMR towards Siruseri, Kelambakkam – about 25 km south of Chennai; and the GST Road (NH45) that have borne the brunt of correction. Developers predict that prices may remain stagnant or may even fall further n the short term. A steady rise in interest rates, excess supply and weak market conditions prevailing across the residential belts of Chennai appear to be the prime cause for the correction in real-estate prices. Lack of infrastructure development at the expected pace in the suburbs is also a factor limiting demand for higher-priced properties in these areas. While apartment prices have witnessed a correction, developers feel that the capital value of land has remained stagnant in the past few months, with room to strengthen in the long term.

The volume of transactions seen in purchase or sale of land itself has got reduced. Sale of land is partly need-based and developers are restraining themselves from further acquisition. Demand drivers According to leading developers, the price correction may not have a uniform impact on demand; this may depend on the location of the property. Within and just off the central business areas, a price correction will, in all likelihood, boost demand for property, given the limited supply.

On the other hand, in peripheral and suburban areas, a price correction may not be the only trigger needed to improve demand. Though inflation and rising interest rates have led to a correction of sorts, consultants continue to view Chennai as a promising market for developers over the long term. Global real-estate consultant Cushman Wakefield lists an increasing migrant population due to the upcoming manufacturing, IT and IT-enabled services (ITES) sectors in Chennai as the demand drivers for real-estate in prime locations with good amenities, citing areas such as GST Road.

Second sales up In an interesting trend, the slowdown in new home sales has sparked off some beneficial trends for existing home owners. Second sales of homes have increased as a result of reduced new home buying. With the city attracting a fairly large floating population, demand for rental property is also on the rise. In the central business districts, quality residential properties rank high, while towards south of Chennai, minimal supply of quality completed projects has pushed up rental values.

Sales strategies On new homes, developers are devising innovative sales strategies to promote purchases. According to Mr Subba Reddy, MD, Ceebros, upfront payment of the entire value of an apartment could allow room for a discount of up to 12 to 25 per cent on the overall sale value. While price cuts are necessary to induce buyers, amenities such as swimming pool, gym and adequate parking play a vital role in inducing buyers to purchase apartments, say the builders.

Other factors include quality of construction, location, and value add-ons such as 100 per cent power back-up. Better infrastructure Affordable housing, in the bracket of Rs 10-20 lakh for a two-bedroom apartment in city outskirts, is said to be the biggest segment of the market. On this count, Chennai ranks better than most cities on account of the improvements expected in its infrastructure three to five years from now, even with the slow pace of current development, as well as a more stable demand, according to Mr Pratish Devadoss, MD, VGN Enterprises.

Demand in Chennai originates not just from one or two segments of buyers, but from a wide cross-section — sectors such as IT, auto, healthcare and manufacturing, professionals such as doctors and architects. In the light of these factors, developers see the current downturn as a cyclical one, and believe the situation may take anywhere from a year or more to stabilise. More Stories on : Real Estate & Construction | Tamil Nadu -business line Sunday, Nov 02, 2008 http://www. brixresearch. com/brixresearch/content/IRE_vol8Issue1. pdf http://www. risil. com/star-ratings/rating_by_city/chennai_index. html The apartments in areas near the road were priced in the range of Rs. 2,700 to Rs. 4,500 per sqft, he said. http://www. hindu. com/pp/2009/11/28/stories/2009112850020500. htm Saturday, Nov 28, 2009 All eyes on GST Road This emerging growth corridor is well connected with industrial and IT areas, writes T. Chitty Babu Preferred Destination: Many apartments are under construction on the GST Road The landscape south of Tambaram, is fast emerging as a place of work and as well as a place to live.

It is well connected both with the emerging IT corridor, Auto corridor, SEZ corridor and EMS corridor stretching from beyond Siruseri to Sripermbudur. The tranquil ambience that once represented the GST south of Tambaram is passe, today it calls for a multi-skilled workforce that needs to be transplanted to this area to cater to the growing needs of the IT / ITES / BPO, Automotive & Manufacturing industry. It is not surprising to find many real estate players have already ongoing housing projects in this area to cater to the growing need for quality housing closer to work place.

Projects such as the Metropolis and Belvedere from Akshaya homes, Estancia from L&T Arun Excello, HIRCO’s township Chennai palace Gardens are some of the large residential projects along the GST corridor providing quality housing near work places Well connected with rail and road links the auto corridor alone with Oragadam as its epicenter is all set to roll-out over 1. 25 million cars by 2012 and hosts auto giants like Ford, Hyundai, BMW, Daimler, Nissan, Caterpillar, Komatsu and many others.

The EMS corridor (electronic manufacturing services) stretching from Sriperumbadur to Oragadam houses MNC’s like Nokia, Dell, Motorola, Samsung, Flextronics and many others already in operation. In close proximity to the GST sits the emerging IT corridor covering Siruseri - OMR sector with all the IT gaints having set up shop. And SEZ projects are not far behind with the partly operational Mahindra World city showing the way, more SEZ’s are set to cover this part of south Chennai making GST the favorite destination for huge investments.

This area also has good educational infrastructure with schools and colleges like the Mahindra World School, Cresent school, SRM university, Sai Ram engineering, Vidya Mandir and many more. To complete the social infrastructure upcoming entertainment and shopping projects include the Gold Souk mall, Estancia mall, Belvedere Mall, Sriram Gateway and malls in Mahindra World city. There are also adequate health care facilities; the GST corridor has big names like the SRM Hospital, Hindu Mission, Apollo Hospitals, Deepam etc already running excellent healthcare facilities here.

With all ongoing industrial, residential and infrastructure projects the GST corridor has many things going for it. The author is the Secretary of CREDAI-Tamil Nadu. http://www. hindu. com/2009/03/10/stories/2009031058170300. htm Expected work force CHENNAI: Even as various parts of Chennai experience considerable reduction in property and rental values, many residential localities in proximity to Grand Southern Trunk (GST) Road are able to maintain the rental values over the last few months.

At some locations, an increase of 10 per cent in residential rentals over that of last year is also being reported. “GST Road is one of the first roads on the outskirts of the city to witness development many decades ago. Better road and rail connectivity, proximity to airport, availability of water in plenty in many of the localities have made people opt for residential accommodation near GST Road,” said M. K. Sundaram, Chairman of Builders’ Association of India (South Centre).

People in the realty sector say the locational advantage is the main factor behind the popularity of GST Road. The workforce of the industrial belt at Maraimalai Nagar, Padappai and Oragadam areas finds living along the GST Road more convenient than in localities near their workplace. The areas had witnessed a flurry of construction activity in 2006 and 2007, leading to an increase in the availability of housing stock. However, property values have reduced by around 30 per cent going by the market value of recent transactions, says P.

Raja, a broker. The rate of reduction in property values has been relatively high in areas beyond Tambaram. The decrease in property value is not significant in areas such as Chromepet, Tambaram and Pallavaram, according to Ganesh Murthy, a broker. In the past, the rate of increase in rental values in many of the residential areas near GST Road had been lesser than in other localities of Chennai, according to brokers. So it is not surprising that the rental value has not moved significantly in the recent months, says B.

Velu, a broker. One of the major rail network in the city - Chennai Beach to Chengalpattu - running parallel to GST Road, has also contributed to the sustenance of rental values in some areas, say brokers. While middle class families continuing to opt for residential accommodation in areas near GST Road is a key reason for sustenance of the rental values, IT professionals experiencing pay cuts have started taking interest in the area because of relatively affordable rentals with better connectivity.

With regard to property transactions, the number of sellers is increasing significantly even as the number of buyers remains a microscopic minority, according to Mr. Velu. Residential areas near the Paranur railway station near Mahindra City have experienced an increase in residential rental value of around 10 per cent, said K. T. Inbasekaran, a broker. However Maraimalainagar, a few km away, has been witnessing a reduction in rental value. The availability of larger number houses without tenants in Maraimalainagar has contributed to the reduction, he says. Given the fact that the GST road precinct is close to upcoming IT SEZ’s, excellent residential catchment locations such as Tambaram, Chromepet and Pallavaram with good rail and air connectivity, rentals have seen an increase in many areas over the last 2 years from Rs. 10 to 15 per sft per month,” said Ramesh Nair, Managing Director-Chennai, Jones Lang LaSalle Meghraj. The apartments in areas near the road were priced in the range of Rs. 2,700 to Rs. 4,500 per sqft, he said. Properties along roads such as Thoraipakkam Pallavaram and Kelambakkam Vandalur Road, which originate from GST Road, are expected to also benefit in the medium term,” he added. Roads to the future - Future Mount Road - GST Road Found this article in last week Hindu property plus. http://www. hindu. com/pp/2010/03/27/s... 2750020100. htm http://www. hindu. com/pp/2010/03/27/s... 2750020100. htm Kelambakkam-Vandalur; Vandalur-Oragadam-Walajahbad; Sriperumbudur-Singaperumal Koil. These three stretches are hot topics in Chennai's realty circles. They are spoken of as roads of the future.

It is easy to see why. There is a flurry of business activity and infrastructural development along these roads and in their vicinities; moreover, they directly feed into big corridors of development. All three connect to GST Road; in addition, Kelambakkam-Vandalur Road leads into Old Mahabalipuram Road and Sriperum budur-Singaperumal Koil Road into the Bangalore Highway. "The GST Road is like a spinal column and these feeder roads, like vertebrae. What Mount Road does for Nungambakkam High Road, Cathedral Road, Venkatanarayana Road and a few others, GST Road does for these three roads.

If you look at it, GST Road is but an extension of Mount Road," says R. V. Shekar of Lancor Holdings. Urban planning and the lack of space for expansion in the city's north have fuelled the development of these areas. As they are linked to arterial roads, they figure prominently in the plans of town planners. In keeping with the larger goal of decongesting the city, these three roads are being widened. According to official sources from the State Highways, four-laning of these three roads is underway (a 12-km stretch on the Sriperumbudur-Singaperumal Koil road is in fact getting a six-lane).

At the Oragadam junction where the Sriperumbudur-Singaperumal Koil road and the Vandalur-Walajahbad road meet, a grade separator is coming up. Close to OMR Above all, the speedy growth of OMR as an IT hub has generated interest

Summer Internship Report Development Credit Bank Present and Future Report submitted in partial fulfillment of degree of Bachelors of Business Administration (M&S) Submitted to: Mrs. Apeksha Huda Faculty Guide Submitted By: Raghav Mehra BBA(M&S) 2008-20011 Roll No. A3914708014 Amity School of Business Amity University Acknowledgement I, Raghav Mehra, owe enormous intellectual debt towards towards my dissertation guide Mrs. Apeksha Huda, Faculty, Amity School of Business, Amity University who has augmented my knowledge in the field of marketing and has given me invaluable insight into the subject.

I am obliged to him for being extremely patient and helpful towards me and giving me sufficient time for discussion and guidance at all stages of my work. My increased spectrum of knowledge in this field is the result of his continuous supervision in directing me to absorb relevant and high quality information. I would also like to thank our respected Director Mam, Mrs. Alka Munjal for giving me such an opportunity and platform to accomplish my dissertation report successfully. I would like to thank all those people who helped me in the successful ompletion of my project by giving their precious time in filling my questionnaires without which it would not have been possible to complete my project. Raghav Mehra Contents Banking System in India Executive Summary Introduction About the Project Objective Research Methodology Literature Review 1. Public relation 2. Understanding PR 3. Advertising 4. Advertising- types and how to use it in the 5. present Business Scenario 6. The Objective of an Advertiser’s Right Selection 7. Role of media vehicles in Advertisement 8. The Better Tool of Communication 9. An Analysis PR Vs Advertising 10. The Present scenario 11. The Research 12.

Findings, analysis and recommendations 13. Future of advertising Banking System in India Currently, India has 96 scheduled commercial banks (SCBs) - 27 public sector banks (that is with the Government holding a stake), 31 private banks (these do not have government stake; they may be publicly listed and traded on stock exchanges) and 38 foreign banks. They have a combined network of over 53,000 branches and 49,000 ATMs. According to a report by ICRA Limited, a rating agency, the public sector banks hold over 75 percent of total assets of the banking industry, with the private and foreign banks holding 18. 2% and 6. 5% respectively

In the early 1990s, the then Narsimha Rao government embarked on a policy of liberalization, licensing a small number of private banks. These came to be known as New Generation tech-savvy banks, and included Global Trust Bank (the first of such new generation banks to be set up), which later amalgamated with Oriental Bank of Commerce, Axis Bank(earlier as UTI Bank), ICICI Bank and HDFC Bank. This move, along with the rapid growth in the economy of India, revitalized the banking sector in India, which has seen rapid growth with strong contribution from all the three sectors of banks, namely, government banks, private banks and foreign banks.

The next stage for the Indian banking has been set up with the proposed relaxation in the norms for Foreign Direct Investment, where all Foreign Investors in banks may be given voting rights which could exceed the present cap of 10%,at present it has gone up to 74% with some restrictions. The new policy shook the Banking sector in India completely. Bankers, till this time, were used to the 4-6-4 method (Borrow at 4%;Lend at 6%;Go home at 4) of functioning. The new wave ushered in a modern outlook and tech-savvy methods of working for traditional banks.

All this led to the retail boom in India. People not just demanded more from their banks but also received more. Currently (2007), banking in India is generally fairly mature in terms of supply, product range and reach-even though reach in rural India still remains a challenge for the private sector and foreign banks. In terms of quality of assets and capital adequacy, Indian banks are considered to have clean, strong and transparent balance sheets relative to other banks in comparable economies in its region.

The Reserve Bank of India is an autonomous body, with minimal pressure from the government. The stated policy of the Bank on the Indian Rupee is to manage volatility but without any fixed exchange rate-and this has mostly been true. With the growth in the Indian economy expected to be strong for quite some time-especially in its services sector-the demand for banking services, especially retail banking, mortgages and investment services are expected to be strong. One may also expect M&As, takeovers, and asset sales.

In March 2006, the Reserve Bank of India allowed Warburg Pincus to increase its stake in Kotak Mahindra Bank (a private sector bank) to 10%. This is the first time an investor has been allowed to hold more than 5% in a private sector bank since the RBI announced norms in 2005 that any stake exceeding 5% in the private sector banks would need to be vetted by them. In recent years critics have charged that the non-government owned banks are too aggressive in their loan recovery efforts in connection with housing, vehicle and personal loans.

There are press reports that the banks' loan recovery efforts have driven defaulting borrowers to suicide. Executive Summary Today’s business world has become very competitive. To keep pace in this competitive environment it is very necessary for a marketer to communicate about the company’s offerings to consumers. All the element of promotional mix work to communicate with the audience. Marketers use communications in an attempt to persuade customers to act in a desired manner.

Thoughts about the Future of Advertising Skeptics who forecast the demise of advertising ignore the fact that business and other enterprises have an innate need to communicate with their publics. The real question is not will advertising continue to be an important tool of business communication but simply, what forms will advertising take in the future? Certainly a host of issues related to change face the advertising business. Such issues include the relative importance of the various types of advertising over time, who will pay for what, what controls might be appropriate in light of the changing media environment, and so on.

While changes and improvements in traditional mass media continue to occur, a massive change is underway which blends the efficiency of traditional mass media and the marketing potential of one-to-one interactivity. Examples of this blending include, most importantly, the internet, but also personalized supermarket checkout coupons and personal in-flight video screens. Now the issue arise how advertisers can participate in the development of such media to the benefit of all the parties involved. Development Credit Bank A Quick Brief

A new generation private sector bank, Development Credit Bank (DCB) is the preferred banking services provider across 80 state-of-the-art branches across 10 states and two union territories. The Bank has recently launched several value added initiatives and intends to become one of the country’s preferred and profitable private sector banks, providing a comprehensive suite of “best in class” products for customers in Retail, SME and Corporate Banking market segments in chosen geographies. DCB has deep roots in India since its inception in the 1930’s.

Its promoter the Aga Khan Fund for Economic Development (AKFED) holds over 23% stake. AKFED is an international development agency dedicated to promoting entrepreneurship and building economically sound enterprises in the developing world. It had co-promoted HDFC in India in the late seventies. AKFED operates as a network of affiliates comprising 90 separate project companies. Employing over 30,000 people, it reported annual revenues in excess of US$1. 5 billion. The Fund is active in 16 countries in the developing world. The Past

Built on over 78 years of trust, tradition and togetherness, DCB was converted into a Scheduled Commercial Bank on May 31,1995, in the wake of India’s economic liberalisation. It was the only co-operative bank, which successfully crossed over and thrived in the face of change. The Bank has a network of 80 state-of-the-art, customer friendly, and conveniently located branches across the states of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Delhi/ NCR, Rajasthan, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, West Bengal and the Union Territories of Daman ; Diu and Dadra ; Nagar Haveli. Spreading wings, with the wind beneath

Under the table guidance of an experienced Board of Directors and the leadership of a dynamic senior management team DCB strategically aims to enhance its reach and spread, while introducing exciting new banking products for its customers. Seamless, flawless and timely service To adhere to its vision of becoming the gold standard in customer service in Indian banking, intensive training and service quality programmes have been initiated with customer delight becoming the key focus of the Bank. This will become the lifeblood of DCB and act as its key differentiator. Not just a Bank, a Financial Supermarket

DCB intends to offer an extensive range of products across its branches. Suitable variants of the basic products like savings and current accounts as well as innovative products such as the ‘DCB Trio’ and ‘Easy Business,’ keep DCB ahead of the pack. Demat Account and a range of investment products like mutual funds, insurance and bonds make the product offering complete. Close to its roots, yet flying high Since its inception, DCB has always taken an active interest in developing low-cost customer deposit products and providing for the needs of small and medium businesses in select regions.

It continues to fulfil every consumer need with great enthusiasm. The Bank is also suitably equipped with the latest versions of Finacle from Infosys and Oracle to provide seamless service to its customers. A Bank for its people The pan-India employee teleconferences and introduction of performance-based incentives have already charged the existing work force. Given its reputation for being a non-hierarchical and dynamic organisation, DCB is one of the chosen destinations for aspiring banking professionals. A grip on the future The Bank has an active and robust treasury, managing its interest rate risks nd liquidity by providing an uninterrupted flow of funds, positioning the Bank for future growth. About the Dissertation Objective:- The aim of choosing this bank is “to provide a guideline to businesses, based on which, they can frame and implement suitable strategies pertaining to the form of Advertising as a part of marketing communication with respect to the continues changing business scenario”. The thesis has overall identified the need of Advertising and PR, how is it different from each other and how it is effecting the business of today.

We all know that these tools of communication become the bread and butter of any organization. This is because they want to be noticed and known in the business environment. The brief giving how this dissertation aims to find out the true analysis of these two most effective communication tools are: * The research would aim at giving an insight of the importance and need advertising and PR in marketing of products and services with the aim of brand building and recall building initiative. * The research would give an analysis how each of the above affect the present business in Indian scenario and what is its impact on the same. The present status as a tool of marketing communication * The future prospect as a tool of marketing communication * To find out why should a particular company take the strategy of undertaking Advertising or PR as tools of marketing * To examine which is the best tool of marketing among the two. * To find out the perception of advertising from the perspective of customer. Research Methodology Apart from the Secondary data analysis, to give it a back up with the perceptions and suggestions certain methodologies have been undertaken to make this dissertation or thesis a more proactive.

The research methodology would be kept very simple. The research would concentrate on both Primary and secondary data research, wherein; the following resources have been followed to collect the data. For primary data collection * Questionnaire design * Personal Interviews For secondary data collection * Articles * White Papers * Management Books * Magazines * Internet A total of 60 respondents were selected Filling up of questionnaire- 55 Personal Interviews- 5 This is a very interesting and hot topic in the business scenario.

So the businesses should understand, what were there achievements in satisfying there customer in the Indian market, and accordingly should make strategies for the same. All business wants to market itself and so PR and Advertising have become two of the most suitable methods to build the brand, which would help them to be profitable in the competitive world. Thus, the research and the thesis would provide an analysis from all aspect- be it the need, importance, the current status, satisfying the present to fulfill the future.

The perceptions and suggestions would give the reader a thorough understanding and help to take future decisions. The total thesis would be made after proper research and inputs from best of the people in the industry. Suitable examples, references of the persons contacted would be provided. Literature Review Chapter 1 Public Relation Public Relations as a subset of marketing communication is becoming increasingly important in India. Public relations helps an organization and its public to adapt mutually to each other.

Often, it is a term used to describe both, a way of looking at an organization's performance and a program of activities. The public relations function takes many forms in different organizations, including public information, investor relations, public affairs, corporate communications, employee relations, marketing or product publicity, and consumer service or customer relations. Basic to all public relations, however, is communicating. Well-planned, effectively handled communications are increasingly seen as essential to the success and even existence of organizations and causes in today's changing world.

Every organization-government, business, labor, professional, trade, health, cultural, financial, recreational, educational and public service-depends on people. Their attitudes, attention, understanding, and motivation can be critical to the success or failure of an organization or idea. A public relations, at its best, not only tell an organization’s “story” to its publics, but also helps in shaping the organization and the way it performs. Through research, measurement and evaluation, public relations professionals determine the concerns and expectations of the organization's publics and explain them to management.

A responsible and effective public relations program is based on the understanding and support of its publics. PR is a non-personal form of promotional communication but (in contrast with advertising) is a non-paid form. For example many newspapers and magazines regularly carry news about new launches etc with a view to inform their readers. At random if we pick up the Financial Express of 18. 10. 99. Then on page-7 of the newspaper there are three news items: * Sikkim Dairy Products and Ind. Swiss company had introduced a range of fresh and natural cheese. * Mercedes Benz is offering pre-owned (i. second hand) Mercedes at Rs. 12. 5 lakh onwards: against the new Mere price of Rs. 28 lakh. * Navneet Publications has introduced games for children. Since these items of news, even if they occupy newspapers space, they don't have to be paid for by the marketers. This is what is PR of the respective brands. General Features of PR: * Unpaid: Already explained above. * No identified sponsor: Here the news is supposedly given by the PR firms to the respective media, through which the news get published; and not by the company. To that extent it is more believable.

In other words when the main objective of communication is to create conviction then PR through independent media exposure may prove to be better than through advertising. * Credibility: Since the news seems to have come from an independent unbiased source it appears more authentic. For instance, on 7. 4. 2000 Times of India Delhi edition carries a news item discussing the virtues of Compaq 7800, their latest offering. This naturally will be believed more by a potential buyer than an advertisement for the same product. * Additional Reach: This information reaches even those who otherwise may decide to ignore an advertisement.

More so because while reading a newspaper one may decide that he has bought it to read news not ads. * No/ low cost: Thus as explained earlier, when a Fashion columnist covers the show organized by say Ritu Beri, she only extends her courtesy of an invitation card and may be a cocktail party post fashion show. * No Control: Greatest demerit is that we cannot control PR. Thus, it could be negative PR whereby the product may be criticized. The newspaper may decide to ignore the particular brand, since it may not find it worth publicizing.

Chapter 2 Understanding PR Today business success depends not just on new and better products but equally on being heard in public forums. As the country begins to develop new rules of the economic game, business needs a credible presence – with customers, employees, shareholders, financers, journalists, government officials and law makers. This will provide the cutting edge to competitiveness. Dealing with the scrutiny of various interest groups, being heard in various forums through public affairs communication, is what Public Relations is all about.

The main functional area of Public Relations encompasses the following aims: * Understanding and analyzing public opinion, attitudes and issues which might have an impact on the organisation’s plans and operations. * Counseling organisation’s management on policy decisions, courses of action and communication with regard to organisation’s social responsibilities. * Researching, conducting and evaluating on a continuing basis, programs of action and communication to achieve informed public understanding necessary to the success of an organization. * Planning and implementing the rganisation’s effort to influence or change public policy. * Managing the resources needed to perform all above. Media is the all-pervasive means of building perceptions and images. When a PR program is planned, each medium gets its own individual consideration. In-depth study of the present communication strategy in your organization marks the beginning of a committed relationship. Even specific short term projects involve being responsive and proactive to public opinion. Our expertise in the consultancy arena is an added advantage. The Activities of PR The basic Activities concerned are: * Media Relations * Editorial Services Media Update * Image ; Brand Management * Event Management * Communication Workshops * Government Relations ; Lobbying * Crisis Management * Employee Relations ; Consumer Relations * Advertisement Management * Corporate Films * Investor Relations * Public Opinion ; Market Research MEDIA RELATIONS This is the first step towards being known in the media. For this, their media relation team needs to give that extra push in generating newer media contacts on a regular basis. The stronger the relationship with the media, the easier it gets to get you covered in the publications and electronic media.

The main activities pertain to: * Create strategies to effectively work with the media. * Build proactive relationships with the media that benefit the clients. * Plan, publicize and provide services for press conferences and media briefings. * Work on an ongoing basis to position your company in a positive light. EDITORIAL SERVICES This is a very specialized service wherein, after understanding the client requirements, seasoned client servicing and copywriting experts develop editorial write-ups to get printed in the various target publications. The main activities pertain to: Create support products, including fact sheets, brochures and other forms of marketing material. * Develop news releases, news advisories and media kits, in journalism form. * Pen guest commentaries and letters to the editor for submittal. * Write speeches and presentations. MEDIA UPDATE An active PR campaign for a client goes waste, if the media is not informed about the right things at the right time. The media update service helps its clients to stay in news always. The main activities pertain to: * Insight on what to expect from the media in its news and editorial coverage. Advance warning on what reporters may ask and how they may ask it. * Timely updation of newsworthy information to the target media. GOVERNMENT RELATIONS ; LOBBYING It is very important to know how to communicate with all levels of government, in ways they appreciate and understand. Whether the political participation at an event is to be catered to, have the intention to reach a politician on an issue, or simply need an appropriate political invitation list, we can provide access to the policy makers. The main activities pertain to: Conduct thorough, accurate research to acquire an in-depth picture of the community and its governmental structure, policies and procedures. * Cultivate and nurture an effective network of community support. * Implement grass-roots and governmental strategies. * Assist with the preparation of public presentations. CRISIS COMMUNICATION Crisis management begins with an audit of potential problems caused by internal or external forces. From the audit, we would identify loopholes, develop necessary internal communications procedures and train your management through simulated crisis. The main activities pertain to: Development of emergency response and communications plans. * Advance planning. * Creation of media and community contact directories. * Media training prior to an actual crisis situation. * Crisis management plans that deal with the media. * Consultation and real-time strategic planning during a crisis. * Day-by-day analysis of media coverage. EVENT MANAGEMENT Today the work of PR is not only restricted to the realm of getting coverages only. It has further advanced to create, manage and publicize events for clients, from international launch to national seminars, from social events to cultural evenings.

Whether it's a large-scale public event or an industry conference, a splashy product launch or a celebrity night, the PR firms handles events with flair. Original ideas and flawless execution are the only accepted standards. From venue recommendations to the invitation list, the final result is that the events produce impressive and measurable results. The main activities pertain to: * Conceptualize and deliver events of any magnitude * Co-ordinate all third party negotiations and vendor arrangements * Design of all invitations * Dispatch and follow-ups of all invitations Arrangement for special guests of honor, celebrities, politicians, etc. COMMUNICATION WORKSHOPS It is highly imperative for the corporate spokesperson, who would be the face of the company he represents to speak out something awkward or unwanted in any corporate interview with the media. The PR objective becomes prominent in designating corporate spokesperson getting to interact with a senior media personality in order to brush up their skills in handling various media queries with poise an d elan. The main activities pertain to: * Briefings on how to communicate with the media. * Insight into what to expect from the media. Tips on how to prepare for an interview. * Mock interviews so you can practice techniques needed to succeed. * Talking points that turn your ideas into concise, quotable statements. ADVERTISEMENT MANAGEMENT An important element of public relations can be an advertising program that supports other communications strategies, such as media relations. But, one needs to strategize the media plan so that it can complement the editorial support effectively. The main activities pertain to: * Research advertising potential and recommend outlets. * Create a comprehensive advertising program. * Write copy for print advertising. Produce print advertising. PUBLIC OPINION AND MARKETING RESEARCH Public opinion research and marketing research provide essential information for strategic decision making. The in-house expertise and necessary capabilities to provide clients with the best and most useful strategic data possible is the main idea. A effective Pr would recommends a ‘Comprehensive Reputation Audit & Assessment Systems’ (CRAAS) which helps us understand the market perception of the client’s strengths, weaknesses, challenges and its positioning in the market, in order to formulate a proper media strategy.

The main activities pertain to: * Identify perception parameters * Map your company perception vis-a-vis your competitors. * Strategies media communication based on the positive perception results. IMAGE AND BRAND MANAGEMENT In the emerging marketplace, the corporate brand and image is being dramatically redefined. While the corporate brand is now understood to be a valuable asset, many companies are struggling to realize its full potential. The corporate branding practice is dedicated to developing the corporate brand as a potent and sustainable competitive advantage, and maximizing its utility to our clients.

The main activities pertain to: * Brand Development, (research, segmentation, analysis, identity development, strategic planning) * Brand Expression (targeting, messaging, program execution) * Measurement / Program refinement. EMPLOYEE RELATIONS & CONSUMER RELATIONS In the battle for share of mind and market, your internal audiences are the front lines. No corporation or organization can hope to communicate persuasively and productively with outside audiences unless and until it has gotten the message to its own employees, distributors and other business partners. The main activities pertain to: Advising clients on internal communication best practices * To providing editorial and graphic design for magazines, newsletters and marketing materials * Bolstering morale through poster and exhibit design. * Newsletters * Consumer Surveys * Consumer oriented Events * Tie ups and Associations INVESTOR RELATIONS SERVICES The investor relations services are designed to increase your market value and broaden your shareholder base. The effective PR strategies would make the respective company standout among the thousands of investment opportunities battling for each investor's rupees.

After extensive market research, developing and communicating a compelling investment thesis for owning the company's Stocks and Securities following the guidelines and rules of SEBI. The main activities pertain to: 1. Financial Messaging 2. General Investor Relations 3. Pre-IPO Communications 4. Mergers and Acquisitions The PR spend The Rieses still see a role for advertising, but primarily as a defense mechanism for established brands and products, not as a builder of new ones. Public relations -- specifically publicity and the resulting word of mouth -- are what really build new brands, they maintain.

Most industry executives might dismiss that as "a gross generalization" but all agree that PR is an important and growing tool being increasingly used by marketers. However, both suffered for year. PR spending has long paled compared to ad spending, given the lack of media expense and relative lack of production expense involved. A 2001 survey by Thomas L. Harris/Impulse Research found consumer-products companies, for example, spend about 0. 05% of revenue on PR. That's a tiny fraction of the 2% to 10% of revenues such companies ordinarily spend on overall marketing expense.

The survey also found that marketers cut PR budgets as a percent of sales from 0. 09% to 0. 07% last year, a 29% drop. The percentage of client PR budgets earmarked for product publicity, however, actually went up five points to 23%, even though total spending on product publicity actually went down 10% to $518 million. In India the Public Relations industry reached a major milestone last year in December with the launch and formation of Public Relations Consultants Association of India (PRCAI), an umbrella body representing all the professional consultancies in India.

The PRCAI, mooted by a group of seven leading public relations firms, is a pioneering body that will represent the over Rs. 1 billion industry, which employs more than 8,000 professionals today. Union Budget 2006-07: Public Relations firms ready for service tax The public relations fraternity has welcomed Finance Minister P Chidambaram's proposal in the Union Budget 2006-07, presented in Parliament on February 28, to formally bring PR services under the service tax net. The Finance Minister also proposed to raise the service tax rate from 10 per cent to 12 per cent and widen the indirect tax net to double the collections to Rs. 4,500 crore in 2006-07. During 2005-06, the government is likely to collect Rs 23,000 crore as against the budget estimate of Rs 17,500 crore. Speaking about the repercussions of service tax on the PR industry, Perfect Relations' Cherian said, "I believe the move will lead to consolidation among the small and non-organised PR firms because they may find it difficult to cope with the service tax burden. These small firms will ultimately be acquired by bigger firms. " Chapter 3 Customer Relationship Management in context to Public Relation

Customer relationship management (CRM) is a broadly recognized, widely-implemented strategy for managing and nurturing a company’s interactions with customers, clients and sales prospects. It involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize business processes—principally sales activities, but also those for marketing, customer service, and technical support. The overall goals are to find, attract, and win new clients, nurture and retain those the company already has, entice former clients back into the fold, and reduce the costs of marketing and client service.

Customer relationship management denotes a company-wide business strategy embracing all client-facing departments and even beyond. When an implementation is effective, people, processes, and technology work in synergy to increase profitability, and reduce operational costs. Chapter 4 The Research A research was conducted for making this thesis a more value addition and to provide a basis to the industry to choose the right mix of communication tool for laying down a more successful business. Based on the questionnaire given below, the research was conducted

Research Methodology and Data Sources: The research was started with an Exploratory Research, it included interviews. Exploratory Research seeks to investigate preferences and the impact towards the current business scenario. On the bases of this research various hypothesis was framed and tested on the basis of information collected through a survey. The survey was done on the basis of a questionnaire. The following are the factors have been taken into consideration while seeking out the information for the assessment: Methodology used The data collection tools used was: * Questionnaire Personal Interview The personal interview are based on the question “ Which one do you think is more impactful communication tool and how does it create an impact in the present business scenario? The questionnaire comprising of 12 questions covered all the relevant aspects that were required for the survey among 60 respondents. Demographic Profile| Age group 18 years and aboveGender Male and Female| Psychographics profile| All the people who were existing customers of the bank and can give their views on the same to let us know their preference level. Geographic location| Chandni Chowk (Old Delhi) branch of Development Credit Bank| Questionnaire CUSTOMER SERVICE RATING APPEAL TO THE CUSTOMERS Dear Respondent, The objective of this survey is to know the point of views of the costumer about the bank and what do they think and level of satisfaction derived from the bank; this would help us in improving our future services. I would be very grateful to you for filling the questionnaire and being a part of this research PART - A - QUALITATIVE ASPECTS Sl. No. | Services| Ratings| 1. | Cleanliness, Layout, Access to the entrance,Visibility of Signboards| V.

Good| Good| Average| Poor| 2. | Space available for sitting / waiting / writing| V. Good| Good| Average| Poor| 3. | Easy availability of loose pay-in-slips,withdrawal slips, DDs / TTs forms ; challans etc. | V. Good| Good| Average| Poor| 4. | Availability of services of staff members for any enquiry, problems or Guidelines for various deposit schemes, theirAdvantages| V. Good| Good| Average| Poor| 5. | General behaviour of the members of staff| V. Good| Good| Average| Poor| 6. | Availability of services at ComputerisedCounters eg. Knowing the balance, Debit /Credit of instruments etc. and delivery of printed Pass Books / Statements| V. Good| Good| Average| Poor| 7. | Expert services available in handling ofimport / export business| V. Good| Good| Average| Poor| 8. | Compliance of standing instructions| V. Good| Good| Average| Poor| 9. | Availability of Complaint Register on demand| Easily availableon Demand| Not available| 10. | Any complaint lodged by you is still to beredressed. If so please put the date of complaintlodged with the branch| None| Not attended (putdate of lodgementof complaint)| B. Quantitative Aspect Sl. No. Staff initiative to minimise waiting hours of the customers at the Counter| | | | 1. | Payment of Cash, Cheques, Demand Drafts| within 15mts. | 15-30mts. | More than30 mts. | 2. | Receipt of Cash in the accounts / purchase ofDDs and in other accounts| within 15mts. | 15-30mts. | More than30 mts. | 3. | Delivery of Demand Drafts / Pay Orders / BankOrders| within 20mts. | 20-30mts. | More than30 mts. | 4. | Delivery of Fixed Deposit Receipts| within 20mts. | 20-30mts. | More than30 mts. | 5. | Updating of Savings / RD Pass Books (Whereentries are not more)| Within15 mts. | 15-30mts. Morethan 30mts. | Morethan 1day| 6. | Issue of Cheque Books in Current / SB a/cs| Within15 mts. | 15-30mts. | Morethan 30mts. | Morethan 1day| 7. | Issue of Statement of Accounts (Manual)| Within 7days| 7-15 days| More than15 days| 8. | Issue of Statements of Accounts / Pass Books(on Computers)| Instantly| More than30 mts. | More than1 hour| Findings and Analysis PART - A - QUALITATIVE ASPECTS Question 1: Cleanliness, Layout, and Access to the entrance, Visibility of Signboards? 69%+25% of people believe on clean layout of the bank Question 2: Space available for sitting / waiting / writing 5%+45% of people believe in space availability of the bank Question 3: Easy availability of loose pay-in-slips, withdrawal slips, DDs / TTs forms ; challans 80% of customer can easily find the required documentations Question 4: Availability of services of staff members for any enquiry, problems or Guidelines for various deposit schemes, their Advantages Question 5: General behavior of the members of staff In both the questions the respondents likes the way they are treated Question 6: Availability of services at Computerized Counters eg. Knowing the balance, Debit /Credit of instruments etc. and delivery of printed Pass Books / Statements The evidences are easy to submerge Question 7: Expert services available in handling of import / export business As per requirement customers availing import export services have responded well Question 8: Compliance of standing instructions If possible all complaints are taken on vain Question 9: Availability of Complaint Register on demand Every complain is registered Question 10: Any complaint lodged by you is still to be redressed. If so please put the date of complaint lodged with the branch Every registered complain is solved PART - B - QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS

Question 1: Payment of Cash, Cheques, Demand Drafts Only 2% of bills are not served well Question 2: Receipt of Cash in the accounts / purchase of DDs and in other accounts To maintain the regular cash equity balance Question 3: Delivery of Demand Drafts / Pay Orders / Bank Orders Safe delivery leads safe deposits Question 4: Delivery of Fixed Deposit Receipts With 7. 75% of interest rate on f. ds Question 5: Updating of Savings / RD Pass Books (Where entries are not more) Machines lead to mass and efficient production and services Question 6: Issue of Cheque Books in Current / SB a/cs

Question 7: Issue of Cheque Books in Current / SB a/cs Question 8: Issue of Statements of Accounts / Pass Books (on Computers) Desperate times need desperate measures Interviews The personal interview is based on the question “Which one do you think is more impactful communication tool and how does it create an impact in the present business scenario? ” Out of all the interviews, few of the worth mentioning COMMENTS are given as follows. ‘I think D. C. B is more effective since it concentrates on their present customer so well that they can reach a wider mass through word of mouth.

If a company want to make itself and its product and services prominent in the market vis a vis its competitors, it should be able to communicate it to the target audience. If you consider this fact that India, is widely a rural country and a huge part of the population is illiterate, you can reach them through attractive and pictorial cum sound based advertisement. Thus, I think the company has a potential to grow and be more effective. ’ Mrs. Gurdeep Kaur Housewife ‘I think today Development Credit bank can do more than just what they are doing. An Advertising can deliver the message to the target audience in a more prominent way that PR.

A Company should be in the position to adopt the best communication tool for itself . Although I have seen a couple of advertisements of the bank in the local newspapers but it would be better that the company take a step ahead and work on a better mass media. The present business scenario is very complex, yet interesting. So to keep pace with it as well as the competitiveness, the companies needs to make the right choice’ Ravi Perti Client Servicing, Adcon Services. Comments besides the questionnaire and the inteview Mr. Ashis Nigam: finds the bank to be very good as has recently shifted from H.

D. F. C Mr. Bhandari, Medi Slabs: has the best experience in the online banking Mr. Manu Jain: finds staff to be less White Paper On Daily Rituals of the World A recent study by ad agency BBDO Human beings are creatures of habit—the morning coffee with two sugars, the post-lunch brush and floss, the bedtime yoga routine with lights dimmed. Advertisers, on the other hand, often try to break those habits by wedging new products and services into various parts of the day. Now comes ad giant BBDO Worldwide with its latest weapon to help clients get an edge: An extensive global study of daily rituals.

Unlike habits or routines, which may be ingrained but carry no emotional meaning, a ritual is described in the study as "a defined series of actions that helps us transform from one emotional state to another. " Many of those actions involve favorite things, naturally, and BBDO's hope is that the data will help clients insert their products into those rituals. "We didn't have categories or brands in mind," says Tracy Lovatt, director of behavioral planning at BBDO North America. "We wanted to study the power of rituals in our lives. The study comes at a time when ad agencies are struggling to find new ways to reach customers, and emphasize the value of their work to clients. "This is another example of how the richest source of insight comes from observing behavior," says BBDO President and Chief Executive Andrew Robertson. Making Meaning But rituals are something many associate with rites of passage—marriage, death, even the transition to a new season. BBDO, in contrast, came up with five that occur every day in every part of the world: * "preparing for battle" (the morning ritual), * "feasting" (reconnecting with your tribe over food), * "sexing up" (primping), "returning to camp" (leaving the work place), and * "Protecting yourself for the future" (the ritual before bed). As part of the study, researchers asked more than 5,000 people in 21 countries how they behave during these five transitional periods of the day. While people in every culture report engaging in rituals for similar reasons, they approach them quite differently. About 41% of Chinese respondents said they schedule sex, for example, while only 3% of Russians do—and 7% of Americans. Nightly Lockdown Fully 44% of Brazilians read in the bathroom, according to the study; in Saudi Arabia, 10% of respondents do.

More than half of all Indian respondents surf the Web before leaving the house, while less than one-third of Americans or Canadians do. About 80% of Saudi Arabians pray or meditate before work; in Germany, 3% of respondents do. The rituals that are easiest to understand occur in the morning and evening. Marketers have long appreciated the value of getting a foothold in the tightly scheduled morning ritual, when people tend to stick with a routine and a particular set of products. BBDO participants reported doing an average of seven activities in under an hour, from brushing their teeth and drinking coffee to checking -mail (participants between the ages of 60 and 70 reported the highest rate of e-mail use). BBDO dubbed the period before bed "protecting yourself for the future. " That's because the survey found people in self-preservation mode, as they went about locking windows and doors, applying wrinkle cream, and selecting clothes or "armor" for the next day. It's a brief period, but also the perfect time to find customers at their most vulnerable. As BBDO's Robertson, a former insurance salesman, puts it: "If there was some way to be in the home as people are going through lockdown, you could probably sell a lot of insurance. Broad Categories When it comes to rituals in the middle of the day, the survey's results are less conclusive. That might have to do with the categories BBDO settled on. Feasting, for example, is described as "pleasurable and indulgent…the ritual that reunites us with our tribes. " But the frequency with which people feast vs. simply eating something to stave off hunger isn't clear, and anyone who has organized a midweek meal with busy kids knows that "indulgent" may not be the best way to characterize the mood. Everyone, too, understands the elaborate preparations that go into "sexing up. But the category is a catch-all for everything from teenage girls e-mailing each other to find out what they're going to wear. "Returning to camp," meanwhile, can mean anything from sharing martinis with friends to staring zombie-like at the TV with a bag of chips in hand. Watching TV also creeps into both the morning and evening rituals, as do other habits—this perhaps means the same activity serves different purposes at different hours of the day. Even so, marketers may find BBDO's results help them tailor their approach to consumers.

For instance, cultures in which a high proportion of people eat on their way to work, such as China, could be more open to portable breakfast food than those that don't, such as Spain. While everybody showers or bathes, a shower gel aimed at Polish consumers might emphasize relaxing qualities, as 84% of them shower at night. A more invigorating message might work better with the 92% of Mexicans who shower or bathe in the morning. Knowing that women in Colombia, Brazil, and Japan apply makeup in their car at twice the global rate could prompt a new approach to the design and marketing of cosmetics.

Breaking the Code The challenge is that most consumers are loyal to particular products and patterns, making it tough for marketers to become part of a ritual if another brand is already there. Americans, in particular, said they use the same products every morning, though they're more flexible about what they use at night. Russians are less predictable—only half of them use the same products as part of their morning ritual, and 19% of them use the same products before going to bed.

If there's one constant around the world, it's this: Almost everyone gets irritated when their rituals are disrupted. How will clients see the work? BBDO has presented the findings to several so far, and some were willing to share a few comments with Business Week. YUM! Brands Chairman and CEO David Novak, who calls his company "maniacal about insight-driven marketing," says the study will "provide a fresh, new lens to uncover those insights that lead to positive and lasting changes in consumer behavior. Pepsi-Cola North America Chief Marketing Officer Cie Nicholson called the study "intriguing, because we can learn how to build our brands' share of life, not just share of market. " For Scott Aakre, a vice-president at Hormel Foods (HRL), the Holy Grail is to "find a way to break the code and fit into one of these five universal routines sowe might be able to build lifelong relationships between our brands and consumers. " That's a tough challenge. HERE AT DEVELOPMENT CREDIT BANK WE BELIEVE.......

NAU- Management Across Cultures November 2010 There is a lot of discussion about pharmaceutical companies, intellectual property, and the global AIDS epidemic. Do pharmaceutical companies have a responsibility to distribute drugs for free or low cost in developing countries? Why is intellectual property such a big deal? What impact would South Africa’s decision to levy duties on drugs in the country have on the international distribution of drugs? Was the change that provided patent protection for pharmaceutical companies an appropriate change or a dangerous precedent?

Was it necessary to relax intellectual property rules in order to ensure that adequate supplies of AIDs medications would be available for distribution in the developing world? What role to multi-national corporations have in providing funding or other assistance to international organizations such as the Global Fund? All these questions have many arguments for and against but the right answers probably lie somewhere in between. Having and providing access to affordable medication is one of the greatest challenges we face today.

Many people see the pharmaceutical companies as socially irresponsible. The evidence is in the outrageous prices individuals have to pay for medications. Although I don’t like high priced medications I do believe in the right for a business who has the chance to face many lawsuits to make money. To come up with medications it takes years of research and licensing. The pharmaceutical companies don’t want their hard work to be the catalyst for another company to come in and make a cheaper version and take all the profits.

With the protection of a patent, the companies that make the drugs can charge high prices in an attempt to make their money back. The profits are then spread to investors and also used for more research for better medications. According to the case in the textbook, on average it takes ten to fifteen years for a drug to be created from start to finish, at a cost of $800 million. Even then, the case goes on to state that only 30 % of the completed product will earn revenues equal to its research and development (R&D).

Pharmaceutical companies tend to fund R&D that addresses problems of the developed world, not the developing one. This is because the developed world has the means to finance the research and pay for the completed product. Around 90% of the money spent of health R&D focuses on medical conditions responsible for only 10% of the world’s burden of disease (Benatar, 2000). Pharmaceutical companies feel they have a commitment to deliver performance to their shareholders, and I agree, that is why they focus on diseases prevalent to the market.

Most people in the developing world cannot afford medications used to treat or prevent infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS. Some governments, such as India, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Brazil do not honor patents pharmaceutical manufacturing processes but not patents on pharmaceutical products. This strategy allows generic companies operating in these countries to manufacture patented drugs without paying any royalties to the patent holders, as long as they use a manufacturing process that has not been patented (McNeil, 2000a).

In some of the countries where AIDS has infected a large portion of the population where it also very poor, local companies will reproduce one or more of the drugs that comprise the AIDS “cocktail” and sell it at prices lower than those of the company who originally manufactured and designed it. This takes business away from the companies that have the equipment and potential funding to continue research and create better medication. By countries allowing this it stifles innovation.

If pharmaceutical companies had a greater commitment to social responsibility, then they would help people in the developing world obtain access to affordable medications instead of losing money to the generics being sold. There would still be problems with access to affordable medications once pharmaceutical companies drastically lowered their prices or gave away their medications, due to the inadequacies of the developing world’s health care infrastructure.

Due to the lack of resources, an HIV patient cannot receive a necessary medication if he does not have access to doctors, nurses, pharmacies, hospitals, or clinics that can administer medicines safely and efficaciously. 2. The pharmaceutical industry has traditionally resisted the Intellectual Property Rights agreements because they are concerned that the vagueness in the language could allow countries to abuse patent exemptions. Without the incentive of patents, it is doubtful the private sector would have invested so much in the discovery and development of medicines, many of which benefit oth developed and developing countries. Some pharmaceutical companies will not patent the product because the markets are small and there is limited technological capacity. Companies may take the view that it is not worth the expense of obtaining and maintaining protection when the potential market is small, and the risk of infringement low. Another reason is that the pharmaceutical companies would lose contributions from competing generic medications.

This could cause a domino effect hurting profits in multiple markets. Plus, the pharmaceutical companies fear that the unregulated and unreliable environments could risk creating new strains of drug resistant HIV or other infections. Nongovernmental Organizations feel that developing countries should have the right to produce or import generics. With a global health crisis in these countries, they should be able to have access to the existing sets of treatments that allow people to live with the disease.

Without the Intellectual Property Rights, developing countries doctors are telling patients about the cheapest method of burial, since most patients cannot even pay for the daily bed charge. The Intellectual Property Rights enables developing countries to import a generic drug if they can provide evidence of the public health concern, demonstrate the inability of the domestic pharmaceutical industry to produce the drug itself, and prove that it will only use the drug for public, non-commercial purposes.

Developing countries are satisfied that the agreement does not limit them to emergency situations or designate only a short list of diseases for which generic drugs can be produced. Instead, it permits them to produce or import drugs to address the particular diseases that affect their countries. Nongovernmental Organizations are recommending the use of differential pricing, which would allow prices for drugs to be lower in developing countries, while higher prices are maintained in developed countries. If this is to work, then it is necessary to stop low priced drugs leaking back to developed countries.

Developing countries should aim to facilitate in their legal systems the ability to import patented medicines if they can get them cheaper elsewhere in the world. If South Africa decided to levy duties on drugs imported from Western nations it would cause a shortage on those drugs. The prices for the drugs would go up and the population already has issues affording them. Another problem with charging duties on the drugs is the time and quantity based limitations and a continuing dependence of developing country’s health care planning on the amount of drugs from the Western nations commercial organizations.

The Western pharmaceutical companies could also cease shipping the medications. In 2002 the World Trade Organization extended the transition period for the least developed countries to provide patent protection for pharmaceuticals. The idea behind this was to try and ensure that intellectual property protection supports poorer countries need in public health care not to obstruct the countries health care systems. Countries making use of the extended time still have to allow inventors to submit patent applications during the period.

If developing countries have insufficient or no manufacturing capacities in the pharmaceutical sector it allows them additional time to find solutions. The internationally-mandated expansion of intellectual property rights is unlikely to generate significant benefits for most developing countries and likely to impose costs, such as the overall cost of medicines. This makes poverty reduction more difficult in many areas of importance to development, such as health, agriculture, education and information technologies.

The expansion of the intellectual property rights can also cause increases to the cost of accessibility to many products and technologies that developing countries need. The extension of intellectual property rights globally will diminish the degree of competition worldwide for many products and services. For example, the degree of competition in developing country markets for patented pharmaceutical products will diminish when major suppliers of generic versions of such medicines will have to apply patent protection under Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights.

Other ramifications are the dependence on the intellectual property’s charity morally degrades the individual by fostering dependence, promoting an attitude of humility toward the giver, and relieving the recipient of the ability to set terms and negotiate the terms of receipt. This argument is difficult to use, because it risks proving that aid is wrong, rather than the specific form of aid which is supererogatory, discretionary, conditional charity. Intellectual property’s argument is that the donation of drugs is a partial fulfillment of a duty to the disaster-struck.

The donation of drugs provides immediate assistance but stifles the countries ability to provide for themselves. If they can get the medication for free or drastically lower from developed countries they won’t invest in improving their countries pharmaceuticals to compete, leaving the country stagnant in improvements and reliant on other countries to provide for them. The obligation of developed nations to address the AIDS epidemic in the developing world can be justified on several grounds. First, compassion may motivate developed nations to help alleviate the suffering caused by the AIDS epidemic.

Second, to the extent that good health and healthcare are basic human rights, nations who are able to help are obligated to contribute resources to guarantee these rights. Third, because the wealth, and health, disparities between the developed and developing world are largely a legacy of colonialism, the developed nations have an obligation to address those problems to which they contributed. Finally, it is in the self-interest of developed nations to assist the developing world. If the AIDS epidemic is not controlled in the developing world, the resulting economic and political instability will threaten the security of all nations.

Since the vast majority of the people infected with HIV and has AIDS do not live in developed countries and do not have an access to the health care needed, the countries with the biggest AIDS problems are essentially forced to pay whatever the drug companies demand for their products. Developing nations feel justified in using the threat of using generic drugs to force the companies to lower their prices. Because of the absence of wealth and the poor state of health in developing nations a lot of people feel they deserve discounted medicines no matter how they receive them.

Local governments cannot afford vast reimbursements of health care products to dispense to their citizens the lifesaving medications. The issue is complicated by the fact that developing countries have poor infrastructure, poor health care systems and poverty that prevent the distribution of anti-AIDS drugs. Generic drugs have little or no research and development cost to create, they can be sold for a far reduced price from what the pharmaceutical companies are charging, which makes it an acceptable idea for developing companies.

For pharmaceutical companies to be competitive, they should reduce the price for the AIDS drugs, it can be recouped from the fact that the drugs will suddenly become affordable to a market of millions of sufferers, many of whom will be using the drugs for the duration of the disease, so it would make little profit per customer but the amount of customers could make up the difference. All major pharmaceutical firms have an obligation to offer assistance when social, political, and economic conditions make it impossible for patients to receive life-saving medicines.

Multinational corporations that participate in the Global Funding show that they have the capacity to act morally by aiding those affected by disaster. The positive features of such donations are that they are not coerced and they represent an assumption of moral responsibility by corporations. Multinational corporations can expand their reach into local host country communities, building relationships with families and networks of local leaders, and in some cases, offering business opportunities to vulnerable populations.

These large multilateral organizations such as the World Bank, are able to make their decisions fairly independently of the countries that provide their funds. This means they can allocate money to countries and projects that might have otherwise been ignored by other funding organizations. The Global Fund has been suffering from poor funding, slow distribution, and other political obstacles from some of the richest countries such as the United States that would prefer their own initiatives. As a bilateral donor the United States President’s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief is able to decide where the donated money should be spent.

On initial thought, this sounds reasonable; a nation such as the United States has the resources and ability to determine where that money should be spent. However, the concern is that the decisions become political, rather than need driven. The Global Fund is supposed to be a fund where countries donate without any strings attached. Multinational corporations argue that donating this way allows the United States to avoid the wrong perception because where the funds end up. References (2009). Lecture # 21 -- Pharmaceuticals in Developing Countries: Public Administration 776 -- Spring 2009 Economics of Science and Technology.

Retrieved from http://classes. maxwell. syr. edu/ppa776/lectures/scilct21. html Benatar, S. (2000). ‘Avoiding exploitation in clinical research,’ Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9: 562-65. HG. org - HGExperts. com. (1995-2010). Intellectual Properties: HG. org Worldwide Legal Directories. Retrieved from http://www. hg. org/intell. html Shafrin, Jason Ph. D. Economist. (2008, May 18). Healthcare Economist, Pharmaceuticals in Developing Countries. Retrieved from http://healthcare-economist. com/2008/05/18/pharmaceuticals-in-developing-countries/

Shah, Anup, (2010, October 2). Global Issues: Pharmaceutical Corporations and Medical Research. Retrieved from http://www. globalissues. org/article/52/pharmaceutical-corporations-and-medical-research Sykes, Alan O, (2002, April 1). Chicago Journal of International Law: TRIPS, pharmaceuticals, developing countries, and the Doha "solution". Retrieved from http://www. allbusiness. com/legal/intellectual-property/989277-1. html Luthans, F. , & Doh, J. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy & Behavior (7th ed. ). New York, NY: McGraw Hill/Irwin.

THE EFFECT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE (A STUDY OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA) BY NDIH AZUKA MARTINS MATRIC NO: 051003216 Being a Research Project Submitted to Distance Learning Institute, (Department Of Business Administration) University Of Lagos in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the award of Bachelor of Science Degree in Business Administration OCTOBER 2010 CERTIFICATION This research project titled The Effects of Training and Development on employees Performance by Ndih Azuka martins meets regulation governing the award of B. Sc. egree in Business Administration (Business Administration) of the University of Lagos, Akoka – yaba. Lagos --------------------------Date ------------------------ Name of Supervisor ABSTRACT The purpose of this research study is to obtain the effects of Training and development on the employee’s performance with particular reference to United Bank for Africa Plc. In order to achieve this objective, sample 100 were randomly selected out of the total employees of 2060 covering both top management and senior management staff. The statistical technique used was Chi square method. Simple percentage ethod was used in analyzing the questionnaires, which was presented in tabular form. The findings are as following: 1. That Training and development bring about the needed growth for employees performance. 2. That Training and development have played an important role in the external growth of a number of leading organization It was concluded that: 1. That training and development lead to increase in employee’s performance and output, it was gathered that majority of the respondents were of the opinion that training and development will lead to high efficiency of the organization, profitability and expansion of the organization. . Despite the short run initial challenges associated with training and development, it brings about long term benefits to the organization. It is recommended that, with the immense benefits of the individual growth and corporate performance achieved through training and development, the procedure to a successful integration’s is filled with it, the issue of fair value of a successful integration’s is filled with obstacles. Training and Development have certain costs associated with it, the issue of training needs and style, procedures of training are problems face by training organization.

To cope with these problems, the following suggestions are recommended. 1. There is need for adequate planning for training and development 2. There should be a proper assessment of the Training NEEDS of any proposed training both immediate and remote before training should be embark on. 3. Development of employees should be based on some meaningful criteria like managerial talents, productivity, and business growth. DEDICATION This study is dedicated to the ALMIGHTY GOD the one who propelled me and gave me the energy to embark on this study.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I give God all the glory for making this a reality; I give him all the thanks for been my inspiration, the creator of heaven and heart, the king of kings and the unchangeable changer. I adore you for bringing this programme to history and for helping achieve my aim of finishing this programme as planned. No one can be compared to you. I thank my supervisor Mrs U. O. Lamikari for been so patient and understanding, also for the advice and guidance given when needed to bring this research to a successful end.

My gratitude and appreciation also goes to our course adviser and other lecturers in the department for preparing us up to this level. I am indeed grateful to them all. I also acknowledge the authors whose books are consulted. This acknowledgement will be incomplete without saying a big thanks to my Lovely sisters Mrs. Ijeoma Dijee and Miss Ndih Helen for assisting to pay my fees in my final year in school. My profound gratitude goes to Prince Benson Akindele, my god-father, for all his moral support and assistance for not giving up on me and for teaching me the importance of education, I humbly appreciate.

Finally, I want to thank my family and friends who have supported me one way or the other during my studies. THANK YOU ALL AND GOD BLESS 20th of October 2010 Ndih Azuka Martins CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The recent global economic recession heralded diverse experience across businesses. It was a threatening period that led to unexpected changes for many careers, businesses, organization as well as individuals. To some, the experience provided the opportunity for creative thinking and new development. As we navigate through the troubled water of recovery, business leaders and professionals have engaged diverse strategies.

Some organizations displayed a high level of business intelligence, leveraging on the intellectual commitment of their staff to stay afloat. Nevertheless, the rate of talents and careers that were drowned by the economic recession was quit much due to unbalanced acquisition of new skills, training and development. It is not a fallacy to say that training constitute the core of staff productivity in any organization. In organization, whether public or private concern, it is the staff that plays critical role in helping organization, groups or society to achieve their stated goals and objective.

Hence, to accomplish this purpose, training and development need be adopted to have an optimal high productivity on staff performance. Organizational performance depends on how employees are being trained and motivated. No organization can triumph in the race of economic recession, and business uncertainty because our world is currently under going rapid changes particular in the area of skill obsolesce and technological capability; training is not exclusively reserve for newly employed staff but also for the old employees as well. Commercial banks just like any other organization in Nigeria strive to chieve optimum efficiency in their human resources management, thus devote a large chunk of their substantial capital to training and development. This becomes more imperative with successful completion of Mergers, Acquisition and it attendant increase in capitalization witnessed of recent in the Nigeria Baking industry which necessitated increase in attention of training and development. 1. 1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Training and development programmes foster the initiative and creativity of employee and help to prevent manpower obsolesce which may be due to age, temperament or motivation or the inability of a person to change.

Simbo A. Banjoko (2002). An organization that is growth conscious must take training as an important aspect of its task. It is pertinent to note that human resources have the highest elect orating rate and should be in energy of an organization so as to receive the desired result as they are the cornerstones of any organization. While training is concerned with increasing knowledge and skill in claying a particular job, development aims at availing to the skills of the worker and improving their general knowledge and altering their attitude.

This project shall aim at how training and development can bring about efficiency in achieving organizational objective in United Bank for Africa (UBA) Plc. After merger and acquisition in the Nigeria commercial sector, training and development of new and old employee enable the employee to have necessary skills and be able to perform more and attain organization goals. Increase in labour turnover provides gaps, which have to be filled with employees. These new employees come from different companies with different skills.

These employees have to be trained and be retrained so as to be able to achieve the objective of the organization. Training and Development of human resources in the banking industry is mostly costly through on - the job or off - the job training. Banking industry are service providers and has been aptly described as the “lubricant of the engine of growth that drives the economy”. People are employed to work in various sections cum departments and they deal with all aspects of banking activities.

Bank employees possess different degrees and certificate, yet in spite of this, there is need to train and develop them on banking operating techniques in order for them (employee) to be able to perform a more responsible and tasking duties through training and staff development, banks are able to save and improve current performance and provide a suitable trained staff to meet present and future challenges. 1. 2STATEMENT OF PROBLEM With the recent recapitalization embarked on by the banks, the problem of declining productivity, low esteem and lack of requisite skill of bank employee have continue to confront the banking industry.

There is the possibility of the industry facing shortage of highly skilled manpower in the further as a result of the growth and expansion of most banks in the country. Even though various researchers have shown that training and development has considerable impact, there is little empirical evidence to show the relationship between training and development and staff performance. This brings us to the question of why training is not impacted on staff performance in other word why training programme fail to meets its objective of improving staff performance in some instances This may be due to the following reasons: a.

Faulty training technique which ignore the peculiarities of each organization culture b. Inability of staff to imbibe and / or remember what is being learnt in training thereby failing to apply such knowledge to it. c. Wrong attitude of staff towards training 1. 3SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Training in an organization is veritable no matter how well qualified for a job, training is required to bring out the best in such individual in order to bring out the desired result. Thus the relevance of this study is aimed at showing the importance of training and development in achieving organizational objectives in the banking industry.

The study will also be useful to scholars in the field of social science, management and other related field as secondary source. 1. 4OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The aim of this project is to show how training and development have helped in improving employee’s performance toward enhancing a better productivity level in the banking sector. The study shall aim at the following: 1. To show the outstanding features of what training and development entails and how it can effectively be carried out in organization. 2. To give a detailed account of the advantage and disadvantages of training and development in the growth of any organization. . To create awareness of the fundamentals or principle of training in an organization 4. To appraise the effectiveness of training and development programme on the banking industry, while cognizance of how it has help in motivating workers in their place of work, using UBA as a study. 5. To determine the extent to which training and development of human resources motivate workers toward achieving organizational goals 6. To examine the impact of training and development programme on the overall goals of the organization. 7.

And lastly, the study shall highlight some of the basic flaws and problems that are implemented to effective training and development in the United Bank for Africa (UBA) Plc and proffer recommendations to the management of the bank based on findings. 1. 5RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS In the light of the above objectives enumerated above, some hypothesis will be drawn up which the study shall pronounce answer to the hypothesis for this study are: Hi:That there is significance correlation between Training and Development on the performance of worker on the job.

Ho:That there is no significant correlation between Training and Development on the performance of workers on the job Hi:That Training lead to high optimum productivity Ho:That training does not lead to high optimum productivity. 1. 6RESEARCH QUESTION 1. Is there any significant relationship that exists between training of staff and organization performance? 2. Does training lead to high optimum productivity? 3. Does training lead to improvement on the side of the trained staff and wages receive thereafter? 4. Is there any significant different among training, job satisfaction and organizational performance? 5. Is there any ignificant relationship between staff productivity and organization performance? 1. 7PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The study intends to examine the extent to which training development function of banks has been carried out in order to achieve organization goals. The study will be centered on the workers of UBA PLC with aim of examining the effect of training and development of the employees’ performance. The availability of funds, time constraints, and distance e. t. c shall serve as limitation to the study. Also the study shall not examine the cost effectiveness of the method of training or the best. 1. 8PLAN OF THE STUDY

This research will attempt to study the impact of training and development on staff performance in the Nigerian commercial bank using UBA PLC as a study. The research study will be divided in 5 (five) chapter Chapter one will deal with background of the study, statement of the problem, significance of the study, it shall also discuss brief research hypothesis, Methodology of research, scope and limitation of the study and lastly plan of the study. Chapter two will cover a detailed review of current and existing literature; examine works of various authorities’ theorist and writers who have undertaken research studies into the theme.

Also it shall examine differences between development, objective of training and developments, training need analysis, method of training and evaluation of training programme. Lastly the chapter will discuss training and development in Nigerian Banking Industry, Training and development as being practice in UBA PLC Chapter three will deal with research methodology, source of data, sampling technique, re-instatement of hypothesis, method of data analysis and questionnaire that will be design to answer hypothesis question. Chapter four will deal with data presentation and interpretation

Chapter five will summarize the general study 1. 9OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS The definition of key terms used in this study is very important. This is to enable the researcher to produce a good conceptual framework of the study. i. Development: This is a process whereby organization may be become effective overtime at achieving its goal and objective for greater change ii. Organization: It is the conscious coordinated social unit compose of two or more people, functioning on a relatively continues basis to achieve set target. iii.

Performance: This is described as the activity carried out by the employee towards the achievement of the organization goal. iv. Organizational Development: These is the process which an organization develop an internal capacity to be the most effective it can be in its mission work and to sustain itself over the long term performance REFERENCES Adebayo D. O. (2000) Motivational Antecedent of training and outcome among Commercial banks workers on staff development. PHD thesis, University of Ibadan Simbo A. B. (2002) Human Resource Management, University of Lagos Educational publisher CHAPTER TWO . 1LITERATURE REVIEW The purpose of this chapter is to discuss training and development with reference to some relevant literature. Emphasis will be on training and development in Nigerian Banking Industry. Also differences between training and development, objectives of training and development, determine the needs of training will also be study more importantly, the nature of training and development in the United Bank for Africa (UBA) plc will be examined. 2. 2TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT It is perhaps not a fallacy to say that training constitutes the core of human resources management.

An organization generally assign certain tasks to employees, the extent to which these employees are prepared to carry out such tasks will determine whether such employees will make a success out of the task they have been given to carry out. When employees are properly trained, they are in position to achieve concrete result for the organization. Training begins first with a prelude called the induction process. Here the employee will be taken around the various departments in the organization and introduced to people, machine and materials with which he will work with.

Similarly, there is a general introduction to the organization policies. It is important to note what people have said about training and development. According to Obisi (2006) “Training is a process or procedure through which the skills, talent and knowledge of an employee is enhanced and increased. He further stated that training and development aims at developing competence such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organizational growth”. Fashoyin O. 2006) says that training and development ensures that the human resources of an organization and the skills and knowledge required in carrying out the various task of the organization. Nwachukwu F. (1999) stressed that training and development of employees is very necessary to increase the productivity of an organization. He went further on to say that: “……… employee productivity is a function of ability, will and situation factors An organization may have employee’s ability and determination. With appropriate equipment and managerial support yet productivity Falls bellow standards.

The missing factor in many cases is the lack of adequate skill and Knowledge, which are required through training and development”. In agreement with the above assertion, Lawal O. (2003) is of the opinion that “once” employees are selected, they must be trained and their skills developed. The same process is true for those already on the job. The scope of training and development activities in organization depend on the policy and development activities of an organizations policy and strategy. It is however important to know that training is not something that is done to new employees.

It is used continuously in well-run organization. Every time you get someone to do the work the way you want it done, you are training. Every time you give direction or discuss a procedure, you are training. Sola Aina (1992) is of the opinion that before employees can perform their job satisfactorily, they must master the special technology used by their enterprises. This entails acquisition of knowledge and skills. When sometime this acquisition is needed the employee is new to the organization; sometimes it’s needed because the organization changes its technology.

At other times, its is necessary if an individual is to change places within the organization either by lateral transfer or by promotion. Training is seen as the acquisition of new technology, which permits employees to perform according to optimum standard. Thus, training is defined as an experience, a discipline or a systematic action which causes people to acquire new skills, knowledge and pre-determine behavior. It is the responsibility of an organization to ensure that people at all levels in the organization are stimulated to learning.

Accordingly Koontz and Darnell (1976) are of the opinion that training and development must involve managers at all levels. Training is not just for a selected few “crown princess and princesses” nor is training only for those at lower levels. Top management may recognize the training needs of first line supervisor but the top managers should be their optimum priority, To provide an example of the commitment to the continuing development of all people in the enterprise. Training and development should be seen in this light as an integral part of any organization.

It is not a choice of whether to train or not but what can be a matter of choice is the method employed in training. Every organization must know that for them to achieve high productivity, there is need for training so that both the organization and the employee can grow simultaneously. The organization will boost of competent staff by training its employees who will be performers and achievers. According to Famora, A. (2044) in this regard, “Employees who have not received adequate training before being assigned with responsibilities lack the necessary confidence with which to carry out the job”. . DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Training and development are two interrelated process whose importance cannot be over-emphasized in any discussion of strategic human resources management. The two processes related to the series of activities which an enterprise would need to embark upon to improve its managerial capacity. However, one is tempted to think that training and development mean the same thing and should not see any similarities between the two words, The differences are so glaring. Lawal (1993) opines that training, education and development are often used interchangeably.

However, there is the need to make distinctions among them. He says: Training is concerned with the increasing knowledge and skill in doing a particular job. Training is narrower in conception than education or development and the major burden of training falls upon the organization in which the job is located. Development on the other hand is a long term and more embracing programme that is to meet anticipated changes and not the need of an organization as a whole. It aims at adding to the skills of workers, improving their attitude.

For instance, it is possible to train a worker on how to operate a computer. However, an attempt to train workers on how to demonstrate judgment responsibility and empathy in dealing with people may be difficult because the skills develop over time with experience that may occur accidentally or as part of a planned programme. According to Cambell (1971), training is designed for a short term, stated purpose like the operation of some pieces of machinery, while development involves a broader education for long term processes.

Cambell further classified the differences between training and development into four categories: what, who, why and when as explain below. 1. “What” is learned under training is technical and mechanical skills and talents, while under development ‘what’ is learned is theoretical and conceptual ideas. 2. “Who” is learning under training is a non-managerial personnel. While development, the managerial personnel is learning. 3. “Why” such training takes place under specific job relate purpose. Under development, the purpose is for general knowledge. . “When” such learning occurs under training for short period of time, it is for a long period of time under development. Obisi (2006), describe training as a short term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose. Development on the other hand is a long term educational process utilizing a systematic and organized prefecture by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose.

Koontz and O’Donnell (1976) believe that “to be result oriented, the management process approach to training concern the provision of opportunities for enterprises manager to become conversant with the principles, concepts and techniques which will be useful in improving their efficiency and effectiveness. On the other hand, they believe that “management development concerns the means by which a person cultivates those skills whose application will improve the efficiency and effectiveness with which the anticipated result of a particular organization segment is achieved”.

Management development as defined by Beach (1998) as the systematic process of training and growth by which employees gain and apply knowledge skill, insight and attitudes to manage work effectively. He said that development is usually for managers and that managers develop not only participating in formal courses of instruction but also through actual job experience in a work environment. Ubeku (2006) said that while training is concerned with impacting specific skills for the purpose of development and its concerned with enhancing the intellectual psychological? ocial and physical being of the individual. According to him, the work of the manager is not known to be routine and also by developing the manager, he will have a well developed mind with all kinds of management situations. Furthermore, Ayida (1995) consider that a “manager must see himself as part of total operation and his success will depend largely on how well he understands the vital principal that goals of his unit must be integrated with those of the organization.

Therefore, development of managers must take two aspect into consideration, first the individual must be professionally competent in his discipline and secondly, he must be able to manage man and money, material and situation. 2. 4OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT The purpose of training is to give employees at all levels sufficient instruction and guidance to enable them to perform their jobs effectively and prepare them for higher responsibilities.

The need for training exist where there is gap between standard of performance demanded by a department and by the individual. The objective of training is to close this gap. Koontz and Donnell (1976) are of the opinion that the more precisely the training objectives are stated, the more likely the chance of achieving them. The analysis of training needs is the basis for training objectives, which give direction to development and facilitate the measurement of the effectiveness of training efforts

The concern that the purpose of training is to achieve enterprises objective and develop professional managers, unfortunately there is often little relationship between training activities Obisi (2006) Says: “Training is a continuous activity to keep employees in good shape so as to be able to carry out assigned tasks. Training and development allows for high performance of the employee. When employees are trained, he knows what to do and so he is focus on how to display those skills which he has to learn, which brings the best out in an employee.

According to Harry Levinson (1989) the purpose of training are viz; 1. To improve the quality of output. 2. To lower the cost of waste and equipment maintenance 3. To lower the number of accidents 4. To lower turnover and absenteeism and increase employees job satisfaction since training can improve the employees self esteem 5. To prevent employee obsolescence He further stated that training helps the organization becomes more efficient and effective and the employee to develop and become more satisfied.

Also Leslie Ray (1986) added that training is high in funding and in terms of time and other resources but that the cost of not training may be disastrous. Training according to her should be seen as a management tool to be used judiciously and the knowledge acquired should be applied in business No doubt training and development aim at achieving the best results in both the employee and the organization as less supervision is done, greater commitment and dedication occur thus bridging the gap between existing performance ability and the desire performance .

This is why Cunning N. M. (1987) affirmed that training and development create an open, problem-solving climate through out the organization. It also helps to develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organizational mission (profit and service) and organization development. 5. TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS If business needs are identified, training can be planned and carried out to satisfy those needs. In order to identify needs and prepare a training plan, training needs analysis (TNA) must be undertaken. Training needs analysis is defined as:

An examination of the organization present and expected operations and the manpower necessary to carry them out in order to identify the numbers and categories of staff needing to be trained or re-trained………. To reach the required standard of performance in his/her current or future job. Thus, before we design appropriate training programmes, we must identify the training needs. A training need exists when the gap between actual and required performance is most economically met by a training intervention. As all organization work within economic constraints the above definition seems reasonable.

While some organizations may be prepared to spend more on training than others for a similar activity, the monetary criteria may act as a regulation regardless of the situation. It may be justified on economic ground that it is more effective to recruit people with necessary skills rather than train them. However team performance is likely to suffer as a result of less training, thus the organization should take the decision to train. Training need should be detected and identify at three levels, namely: a. The general or company level b.

The group or department level and c. The individual level The techniques for identifying the needs at various levels are different and are listed below Obisi (2006): The organization needs are: • Analysis of record and reports • Analysis of future trends and opportunities • Interim comparison • Management audits • Attitude surveys • The group/ department needs • Meeting of management teams • Group projects • Group creativity techniques • Behavioral modeling and analysis The individual needs: • Job analysis and description • Text and examinations • Questionnaires Interviewing • Observing • Diary methods • Management by objective • Performance appraisal • Self assessment • Career planning • Assessment centers 2. 6METHOD OF TRAINING There are three methods of training employees by the trainers, namely a. On-the-job training method b. Off-the-job training method c. External training involves techniques such as demonstration, coaching, mentoring job rotation/planned experience. Banjoko O. (2002) On-the-job method according to Glueck (1988) is probably the most widely used and abused method of training (formal or informal).

It is direct and trainee is actively engaged. Here the employee is placed into the real work situation and shown the job, and the tricks of the trade by an experienced worker or supervisor. This method could therefore be organized as learning by doing whereby skills needs for the efficient performance of duties are impacted. Robinson (1985) highlighted the merits of this method to include unhindered output as both working and learning take place simultaneously making it to be beneficial to both the organization and the workers.

Also the employee is able to learn as faster as a result of the practically of the teaching. However, Humblin (1977) believe that the method is not without demerit such as: i. Risk of operating equipment and increase in scrap due to lack of experience. ii. Lack of time due to pressure of work iii. Psychological pressure on trainee due to exposure before experienced colleagues The off-the-job method involves technique such as action learning. Job (skill) instruction, question and answer, assignment projects, guided reading, computer-based training multi-media training etc.

The off-the-job Method can be conducted within the organization but in an area designated as training schools or vocational centers This method provides an opportunity in low-risk surroundings to study important problems in greater depth that would make it possible in the midst of work pressures and interruption; It also allows for broader acquisition of knowledge and skills. However, Humblin (1977) also highlighted the demerit to include: i. Cost of external facility ii. Generally more time consuming iii. Often involve traveling cost and inconveniences.

Micer (1992) however affirms that both on-the-job and off-the-job training are complimentary as it allows for versatility on the part of the employees towards the performance of various tasks and achievement of desired results. The third, (external training) method unlike the first two methods of training is totally externally to the organization. It is a source of training which takes place in classrooms, seminars. The techniques used are lecture, talk, discussion, case study, role playing, assertiveness training, distance learning etc.

This method has the advantage of providing for the development of managerial talents, leadership intuition, technical and social knowledge especially in areas where the course are of standard. Ideally, the mode of training provides knowledge which might be difficult to acquire within the organization and such knowledge should broaden the horizon of the participant. However, some disadvantages associate with this type of training are: a. The distinction and gap between theory and practice b. The possibility of such theoretical knowledge as provided by this method dissipating over time if they are not immediately put into practice. . EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMMES Training is an investment in human capital and like any other investment; there is always the need to evaluate the return on investment. Chartered Institute of Management (2004) defines evaluation as the most complimentary skill and can be done effectively only after knowledge is acquired, comprehended, applied and synthesized Obikoya (1996) established that the commonest reason for evaluation is to determine programme effectiveness so that future programme can be improved upon.

This in effect means that it involves obtaining information (feedback) on the effects of a training programme and assessing the value of training in the light of that information. Boydell (1976) pointed out that it may be difficult to obtain information on the total effect of training as it may be a bit complex. Therefore evaluation exercise must be with the total value of training activity of the organization not merely the achievement of its stated objectives. Evaluation can be however be conducted at the following three stages as enumerated below; i. Pre-training evaluation ii. Post- training evaluation and iii. Point evaluation . 8TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY Training in managerial skills received little direct attention during the early development of the country’s education system. This was so because according to Ajogu M. O. (1976) before Nigeria’s independence managerial and supervisory jobs were the exclusive preserve of the expatriate either in the private or public sector of the Nigerian economy. Consequently, the education and training of Nigerians in managerial and/or executive skills tended according to Ajogu to be the belated consequences of Nigerian policy of the 1960s on the training and development of workers.

This initial setback was more apparent in the banking industry which was dominated by foreign owned banks. There was no stiff competition for business and staff among the foreign owned banks. Ajogu M. (1997) However, with the advent of indigenous banks there was the need for recruitment of experienced workers. The first sets of Nigerian university degree holders to be employed in the bank were recruited in the 1960s. Before the establishment of training centers in Nigeria, some banks took t5he decision to send ten Nigerian oversea on attachment to home office of foreign banks.

Chartered Institute of Bankers (2002) The first banking institution to open a training center locally was Union Bank Plc in 1956. First Bank establish its local training center in 1960 while United Bank for Africa Plc which open its door for business in 1961, did not start a training center until 1975. In 1978 the defunct Savannah bank followed suit. Chartered Institute of Bankers (2002) Even though some banks prior to the consolidation era, did not deem it fit to establish their training center, this does not in any way suggest that training and development of their staff were totally neglected.

The banks that have training centers are known to train a few staff of other banks. Also there are some major training and professional bodies that help bank in their training efforts, such as: i. Financial Institution Training Center (FITC) ii. Chartered Institute of Bankers of Nigeria (CIBN) iii. Nigerian Institute of Management (NIM) Also involved in training of banks staff are institution of high learning (Universities and Polytechnics) private consultants, and organizations such as foreign professionals and associate of banks based oversees. 2. 9TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA PLC (UBA)

United Bank for Africa Plc (UBA) was incorporated in Nigeria as a limited liability Company on February 23, 1961 under the Companies Ordinance cap 33 1922. The bank took over the assets and liability of the British and French Bank Limited, which carried banking business in Nigeria since 1949. Following the consolidation reforms introduce and driven by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) in 2004. UBA merged with Standard Trust Bank (STB) Plc on August 1st 2005 and also acquired Continental Trust Bank (CTB) Limited on December 31st, 2005. The banks shares are currently quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange, (NSE).

The post consolidated United Bank for Africa has emerged today as the biggest in Nigeria, with a total branch network growing tremendously to over 523 in 2009. From these branches, the bank ensure about a 278 percent growth in deposit mobilization, which ensure a 24 percent growth in earning generation which was also ensured a 135 percent growth in profitability. CBN report 2007 2. 10THE TRAINING PROGRAMMES OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA PLC (UBA) The training programme of UBA Plc is predicted on the banks consolidation strategy which emphasized human capital development.

In recognition of the fact that the availability of knowledge based work force is a veritable tool as of pursuing a recruitment policy that is skilled-mixed in character and nature. The injection of fresh entry- level graduates into the bank as well as executive recruitment is said to have been designed to rejuvenate its workforce. Apart from that, skills and knowledge upgrade were pursued vigorously during the year 2008. The aim was to equip staff to confront emerging challenges and stay ahead of the competition.

Thus the objective of training and development department located in Lagos is to provide effective training system to supply personnel with up to date competence and positive attitude that will enable them to cope with the present and future challenges and attain a competitive edge in the industry. In the light of this, the training needs of employees are divided into two broad categories: i. General courses ii. Specialized Courses 2. 10. 1GENERAL COURSES These are designed to be attended by all employers of the bank and it includes the following: a.

Induction programmes designed to introduce all new entrant irrespective of grade or discipline to operations, in general and it compose of the following. i. Code of conduct and business ethics in the banking industry with particular reference to UBA Plc. ii. Basic skills management iii. Total quality management b. Training and re-training programme exposes the workers to the latest technology technical education, audio visual communication, bank product packages and the strategic direction of UBA Plc. These are sub-divided into i. General Technical Banking operations ii.

Management and iii. Marketing 2. 10. 2SPECIALIZED COURSES These are designed in relation to the needs of the various strategic Business units SBUS and Strategic Resources Function SRF in the bank. Programmes in the course are technical for example, there are such courses, such as fraud detection, prevention and control; credit administration and Debt management; Advance banking Operation and branch management. 2. 10. 3STAGES OF TRAINING The training programme of UBA is divided into three stages in order to ensure continuous training and retraining viz: Lower management

SENIOR / MIDDLE MANAGEMENT TRAINING SENIOR / MIDDLE MANAGEMENT: Each management undertakes cadre specified training programme of the core and generic course which each employee is expected to attend. Also training programme is conducted through: i. In-house programme (on/off-the job training) ii. In – plant courses iii. External Courses (Local and Oversea) Appropriate evaluation of training are then conducted by the training and development department of the bank in collaboration with strategic business unit and strategic resource function unit, with the support of all the ranches network by this approach, training is integrated into the banks corporate planning process through the involvement of all functional units in the bank. 2. 10. 4SELECTION FOR TRAINING 1. In house course: Training programme for the year containing the core and generic and their duration are sent to all Head office, SBU’S, SRF’s Regional officer and all the branch network each of whom nominate participants according to its training need using the nomination forms. The training and development now places trainees on courses based on such of the nomination. 2.

External Courses: It is the duty of the training and development department of the bank to identify external course organize by reputable training institutions which are considered relevant to the needs and effective functioning of the various units in the bank. Nomination forms are sent to the various relevant units to select participants to attend such courses. Also the strategic business unit of the bank can identify specific needs for banks staff and ultimate training and development department, in order that resource persons can be obtained in house or for external consultants to organize such training.

Such training can take the form of either: 1. In-plant which entails inviting external consultants to train staff within the training and development. 2. External – in which case the nominated staff attend the course at a venue chosen by the external consultants which may be done locally or overseas. REFERENCES Ajogu M. O. (1976) Motivational Antecedent of training and outcomes among Commercial banks workers on staff development. PHD thesis Boydell A. (1976). et al (2003) Determinant of employee job satisfaction: An Empirical Text of a casual mode Human Relations vol. 46, No. 8, page 1007-1027 Cunning N. M. 1987) length of the service and promotions in union and Non- Union Work Group. Industrial and Labour Relations Review, Vol. 38, No. 3 page 408. 420 Chartered Institute (2006) List of registered Nigeria Banks of Banks of Nigeria 1996 edition. Glueck (1988) “The Business of retention” PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT. August publishing pp. 24-25 Hamblin (1977). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice 4th edition page 543-572. Koontz and Donnell (1976), Management by objective and Results in the public sector Micer (1962) Human Resources Management Obikoya O. (1996) Personnel and Management of People at work at Macmillan Publishing Co.

New York, 1996 Ubeku A. K (2004) Personnel Management in Nigeria. Ethiope Publishing Company Chartered Institute United Bank for Africa Annual Report (2006) CHAPTER THREE 3. 0RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter shall be devoted to the techniques through which data are collected and analyzed in order to provide answer to the research questions posed. i. e. what is the important of training on staff, test the research hypothesis that was earlier proposed. This chapter shall attempt to explain how the research objective would be met therefore it shall cover the sources of data (primary and secondary data).

Also the chapter shall discuss in detail the population sample and sampling techniques and limitation of methodology data analysis. 3. 1SOURCES OF DATA 3. 1. 1PRIMARY SOURCE The primary source of data collection is basically through questionnaire and oral interview through this method a direct observation of event and the performance of experiment can be obtained generally. Questionnaire will be given out to employees of UBA Plc in about four different branches and head office in Lagos Island.

Also oral interview shall be conducted with some members of staff including head of training and development, UBA Plc Lagos. Trainers and trainee currently undergoing training programme at the training school will be given an oral interview. The following method will be adopted in obtaining the data: i. Questionnaire Questionnaire consists of a set of questions designed to gather information and data for analysis. The response provided by respondents on the questionnaires are used to answer the research question which are then used to test for relevant hypothesis in this case.

The questionnaire will be divided into two parts: the first part shall provide answers to the respondent bio-data while the second part will provide answers to the research questions. Even though the responses of the respondent will be used for purpose of research are fraught with the following limitations. 1. Respondents might not be inhibited to respond freely to the questionnaire because of fear of their supervisors. 2. Vital pieces of information might not be disclosed by respondent, if such information borders on confidentiality. 3. The respondent might not represent the population mentioned in the sampling size. i. Oral Interview: In addition to questionnaires, oral interview will be conducted with trainers, training coordinators, head of training and development department, administrative officers, and other supporting staff at the head office. Questions which could not be answered through the use of questionnaires will be prepared for the purpose of the study. 3. 1. 2Secondary Sources: This will involve collection of data obtained from relevant literature on training and development and data from the training and development department of UBA Plc.

Also journals and such documents as annual report of the bank gathered over five year period (2003-2008) will be examined. 3. 2RE-INSTATEMENT OF RESEARCH QUESTION 1. Is there any significant relationship that exists between training of staff and organization performance? 2. Does training lead to high optimum productivity? 3. Does training lead to improvement on the side of the trained staff and wages receive thereafter? 4. Is there any significant different among training, job satisfaction and organizational performance? 5. Is there any significant relationship between staff productivity and organization performance 3. RE-INSTATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS Hi:That there is significance correlation between training and development on the performance of worker on the job. Ho:That there is no significant correlation between training and development on the performance of workers on the job Hi:That training lead to high optimum productivity Ho:That training does not lead to high optimum productivity. 3. 4POPULATION SAMPLING The population sample was taken from four different branches and head office of UBA which are UBA university of Lagos branch, UBA Oba Akran, UBA Allen Avenue and head office Lagos Island.

SAMPLING DESIGN AND PROCEDURES Sampling design used was a single random sampling. A total of fifty copies of the questionnaire were randomly distributed to selected member of staff. 3. 5LIMITATION OF THE STUDY Greater part of the study works has a lot of limitation or constraint encounter during the research study. Funding was one of the constraint mentioned, adequate and up to date piece of information were gathered for research work, which will be used to offer possible solution to training principle and manpower development problems particularly, and organization in general 3. 5RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

The major instrument used for generating the required data was the questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed with questions relating to training and development. The questionnaire is divided into two sections, section one comprise questions relating to the biographical data of the respondent such as age, sex, marital status, educational background, while the second section comprised of research statements formulated in line with the research questions and the hypotheses which were already formulated. The specific version was rating scale started from strongly agree (S/A) to strongly disagree (S/D) at the other extreme.

In all one hundred (100) questionnaires were distributed. REFERNCES Adedayo A. O. (1998) Understanding Statistics Esan E. O. & Okafor R. O. (1995) Basic statistics Method Ihemeje J. (2002) Research Methodology and statistical forecasting PP. 39-50, Rubboni Publisher Nigeria revised edition. CHAPTER FOUR 4. 1PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA This chapter aims at analyzing and interpreting the data collected for this research in this section and laid emphasis on the question that are relevant to the objectives of the study and formulated hypotheses.

The questionnaire used in this study contains Fourteen (13) relevant questions relating to the study, the specific version was the rating scale started from Strong Agree (S/A) on one hand to Strongly Disagree (S/D) on the other extreme. The description of the mathematical and statistical techniques was used. 4. 2ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE RATE The questionnaire was distributed among the Top Management Staff and Senior Staff of United Bank for Africa, One hundred (100) copies were distributed and the whole copies were returned. SECTION A: ANALYSIS OF RESPONDENTS CHARACTERISTICS

TABLE 4. 2. 1: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY SEX |Description |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Male |52 |52 | |Female |48 |48 | |TOTAL |100 |100 |

Source: field Survey 2010 The above table shows that 52 respondents representing 52% of the sample were male while 48 respondents representing 48% of the sample were female. This shows that majority of the respondents were male. TABLE 4. 2. 2: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY AGE |Description |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |18-25 Years |23 |23 | |26-35 Years |24 24 | |36-45 Years |25 |25 | |45 and above |28 |28 | |TOTAL |100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010

It was estimated from the above that 23 respondents representing 23% of the sample were within the range of 18 – 25 years, 24 respondents representing 24% of the sample were within the range of 26 – 35 years, 25 respondents representing 25% of the sample were within the range of 36 – 45 years, 28 respondents representing 28% of the sample were 45 years and above. TABLE 4. 2. 3: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY STATUS Description |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Single |44 |44 | |Married |56 |56 | |Divorced |- |- | |TOTAL |100 |100 |

Source: field Survey 2010 The table above shows that 44 respondents representing 44% of the sample were single, 56 respondents representing 56% of the sample was married while there are no divorcees. Therefore, 44% and 56% of the sample represent the marital status respectively. TABLE 4. 2. 4:DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY LEVELS IN THE ORGANIZATION. Description |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Top Management Staff |48 |48 | |Senior Staff |52 |52 | |TOTAL |100 |100 |

Source: field Survey 2010 From the above table, 48 respondents representing 48% of the sample were top management staff, 52 respondents representing 52% of the sample were senior staff. Thus, 48% and 52% of the sample were representing the two classes of levels in the organization respectively. TABLE 4. 2. 5: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION |Description |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |M.

SC/MBA |49 |49 | |HND/B. SC. |51 |51 | |TOTAL |100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010 The above table indicates that 49 respondents representing 49% of the sample have either M. SC. or MBA, while 51 respondents representing 51% of the sample have HND or B. SC. TABLE 4. 2. : DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY LENGTH OF SERVICE |Description |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |1 - 5 Years |21 |21 | |6-10 Years |17 |17 | |11-15 Years |18 |18 | |16- years and above |44 |44 | |TOTAL 100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010 From the table above, 21 respondents representing 21% of the sample were within 1-5 years length of service, 17 respondents representing 17% of the sample were within 6-10 years length of service, 18 respondents representing 18% of the sample were also within 11-15 years length of service while 44 respondents representing 44% of the sample has spent 16 years and above. This analysis implies that majority of the respondents have spent 16 years and above in the service. TABLE 4. 2. : DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY YEARS IN PRESENT POSITION |Description |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |1-2 Years |31 |31 | |2-5 Years |41 |41 | |5 Years and above |28 |28 | |TOTAL |100 |100 |

Source: field Survey 2010 The table indicates that 31 respondents representing 31% of the sample have been in their present position within 1-2 years, 41 respondents representing 41 of the sample were within 2-5 years, and 28 respondents representing 28% of the sample were 5 years and above. SECTION B 4. 3:ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH STATEMENTS Statement 1: There is significant relationship that exists between training of staff and organization performance. TABLE 4. 3. 1: |Responses |Frequency Percentage (%) | |Strong Agree |31 |31 | |Agree |27 |27 | |Undecided |14 |14 | |Disagree |14 |14 | |Strongly Disagree |14 |14 | |TOTAL |100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010 From the above table, 31 respondents representing 31% of the sample were Strongly Agree, 27 respondents representing 27% of the sample agreed, 14 respondents representing 14% each of the sample were undecided, disagree and strongly disagree. This implies that there is significant relationship that exists between training of staff and organization performance. STATEMENT 2:Training lead to high optimum productivity TABLE 4. 3. 2: Responses |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strong Agree |34 |34 | |Agree |28 |28 | |Undecided |13 |13 | |Disagree |12 |12 | |Strongly Disagree |13 |13 | |TOTAL |100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010 The table above shows that 34 respondents representing 34% of the sample strongly agree, 28 respondents representing 28% of the sample agreed, 13 respondent representing 13% of the sample was undecided, 12 respondents representing 12% of the sample disagree while 13 respondents representing 13% strongly disagree. This implies that Training lead to high optimum productivity. STATEMENT 3: The impact of training affects the morals of employee’s performance. TABLE 4. 3. 3: Responses |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strong Agree |35 |35 | |Agree |25 |25 | |Undecided |13 |13 | |Disagree |14 |14 | |Strongly Disagree |13 |13 | |TOTAL |100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010

In the above table, 35 respondents representing 35% of the sample strongly agree, 25 respondents representing 25% of the sample agree, 13 respondent representing 13% of the sample was undecided, 14 respondents representing 14% of the sample disagree, while 13 respondent representing 13% of the sample strongly disagree. These shows that majority of the respondents agreed that the impact of training affects the morals of employee’s performance. STATEMENT 4: The objectives of the United Bank for Africa towards training of their employees are of paramount priority. TABLE 4. 3. 4: |Responses |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strong Agree |31 |31 |Agree |31 |31 | |Undecided |10 |10 | |Disagree |12 |12 | |Strongly Disagree |16 |16 | |TOTAL |100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010 From the above table, 31 respondents strongly agree representing 31% of the sample, 31 respondents agree representing 31% of the sample, 10 respondents undecided representing 10% of the sample, 12 respondents disagree representing 12% of the sample, while 16 respondents representing 16% strongly disagree. This means that the objectives of the United Bank for Africa towards training of their employees are of paramount priority. STATEMENT 5:There is significant relationship between employee’s productivity and staff Productivity TABLE 4. 3. 5: Responses |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strong Agree |25 |25 | |Agree |21 |21 | |Undecided |19 |19 | |Disagree |19 |19 | |Strongly Disagree |19 |19 | |TOTAL |100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010 From the above table, 25 respondents strongly agree representing 25% of the sample, 21 respondents agree representing 21% of the sample, 19 respondents were undecided, disagree and strongly disagree representing 19. It was deduced that the respondents agreed that there is significant relationship between employee’s productivity and staff Productivity STATEMENT 6: Training leads to promotion. Table 4. 3. 6 Responses |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strongly Agree |32 |32 | |Agree |25 |25 | |Undecided |13 |13 | |Disagree |14 |14 | |Strongly Disagree |14 |14 | |TOTAL |100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010

In the above table, 32 respondents strongly agree representing 32% of the sample, 25 respondents agree representing 25% of the sample, 13 respondent was undecided representing 13% of the sample while 14 respondents disagree and strongly disagree representing 14% each of the sample. This implies that Training leads to promotion. STATEMENT 7: Training lead to improvement on the side of the staff and wages receive thereafter. Table 4. 3. 7 |Responses |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strongly Agree |30 |30 | |Agree |27 |27 |Undecided |14 |14 | |Disagree

LEGAL STUFF © 2011 and Beyond, Elliott Hulse & Mike Westerdal All Rights Reserved. International Copyright www. LeanHybridMuscle. com This publication is fully copyrighted and does not come with giveaway or resale rights. You may not sell or redistribute this report. It is reserved solely for paid members of LeanHybridMuscle. com. Copyright and illegal distribution violations will be prosecuted. This document has been watermarked with a digital GPS identification tag. NOTICE

The information presented is not intended for the treatment or prevention of disease, nor is it a substitute for medical treatment, nor as an alternative to medical advice. This publication is presented for information purposes, to increase the public knowledge of developments in the field of strength and conditioning. The program outlined herein should not be adopted without a consultation with your health professional. Use of the information provided is at the sole choice and risk of the reader. You must get your physician’s approval before beginning this or any other exercise or nutrition program. This information is not a prescription.

Consult your doctor, nutritionist or dietician for further information. The information contained in this document will help you build muscle and burn fat as fast as possible. It utilizes methods and techniques that we fully explore within our Best Selling Lean Hybrid Muscle RELOAdEd system. Having said that enjoy the preview… INTROduCINg Muscle shifTing DocTrine WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 3 The You don’t need to be a scientist to read this report. In fact my friend Elliott Hulse and I are not doctors with access to research facilities. We aren’t even trying to peddle any supplements if you can imagine that.

We’re just two regular dudes that have stumbled upon a very fast way to build muscle and burn fat. The cool thing is, we both have tough skin. Often times people don’t agree with us and that is fine. The training methods and information we’re going to share with you can be considered controversial. Check em out and decide for yourself if you think this is something that can help you like it has helped so many others. In fact when Elliott and I first started talking about building muscle and burning fat at the same time over a year ago it was met with a lot of criticism from industry experts.

As the results kept pouring in, many of these “experts” have now changed their tune and admitted that it is possible to both build and burn at the same time. Welcome to the bandwagon. Are you sick and tired of bulking up just to gain unwanted fat and the having to diet down just to lose hard earned strength and muscle? We sure are! There is a better way. WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 4 We’re here to tell you that it is possible to tone and build your muscles while decreasing body fat. ? Think you can’t change your muscle fiber type? versus calories out? Think again. Sure you can. Think muscle building and fat burning is all about calories in ? Have you been brainwashed to think eating fats are bad for you and going to give you high cholesterol? Who Is This Report For? This is for anyone that wants to transform their physique by creating dense thick muscle while lowering body fat. This report was also written for those that are willing to break the rules and try something new and different. If you’re willing to keep an open mind and think for yourself this report is dedicated to you! We are going to refer to the process of both Building Muscle & Burning Fat in the same training period as MUSCLE SHIFTING.

MUSCLE SHIFTING is the process of transforming our physiques to be stronger and leaner with more endurance. MUSCLE SHIFTING is accomplished by focusing on three main strategies that we plan on covering in much more depth over the next week and a half. WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 5 #1 Training: Using hybrid training to develop muscles with biologically superior capabilities. #2 Nutrition: We will rotate Nutrition Strategies To Keep The Body From Adapting #3 Hormones: Using the body’s traffic cops to our advantage Creed 1: Build Type III Super Muscles With greater Mitochondrial density Our bodies are made up of different types of muscle fibers.

Type I fibers are known as ‘slow twitch’ fibers and have a high resistance to fatigue while Type II fibers are known as ‘fast twitch’ fibers and have a low resistance to fatigue. Slow twitch fibers support aerobic activities while fast twitch fibers are built for weightlifting and other activities that require short bursts of energy. Guys who are built with lots of Type I muscle fibers make great marathon runners but terrible weightlifters. Likewise, guys who are mostly made up of Type II fibers are ideally built to WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 6 ift weights but poorly suited for long-term aerobic activities such as long distance running. However, by applying certain scientific principles, it is possible to create hybrid super muscles that have the best characteristics of both Type I and Type II muscle fibers. To create these ‘hybrid super muscles’ we are reconfiguring Type I and Type II muscle fibers into a new variety of muscle fiber (Type III) that has endurance, strength and greater mitochondrial density. The greater the mitochondrial density, the more energy we have available for our muscles.

Mitochondria are essentially the muscle cells’ powerhouses, taking nutrients, breaking them down and producing energy for the muscle cells. The form of energy used to power our cells is known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). When you increase the mitochondrial density of muscle fibers, you boost mitochondrial capacity to burn fat for conversion into ATP. This enhanced utilization of fat for energy brings about a process known as ‘muscle shifting,’ which results in stronger muscles, increased lean muscle mass and a decrease in body fat.

Also, as part of the muscle shifting process, a key function of greater mitochondrial density is to increase the capacity of the Type II muscle fibers to resist fatigue, thereby pushing them towards conversion to hybrid super muscles. WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 7 How do we do this? Read the next tactic. Creed 2: utilize Resistance Cardio One of the amazing qualities of super hybrid muscle fibers is that they utilize more fat for energy than ordinary muscle fibers. That’s great because one of our primary goals is to keep body fat to a minimum.

Our other primary goal though is to build bigger, stronger muscles. Fortunately, muscle shifting—creating super hybrid muscles— provides the body a tremendous advantage for building lean mass. The advantage stems from the fact that Type III muscles have the best qualities of both Type I and Type II muscles—meaning that you have muscle fibers that are both strong and resistant to fatigue. Therefore, because these muscle fibers don’t behave like ordinary muscle fibers, they need to be trained using different techniques, approaches and strategies. Ordinary training techniques won’t produce the results we want.

To build super hybrid muscles, you need to utilize a multi-faceted training approach that incorporates elements that would individually be used to train Type I and Type II muscle fibers. In other words, we need to combine training techniques used for ordinary muscle fibers in order to facilitate muscle shifting and WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 8 address the unique characteristics of the resulting Type III muscle fibers. And the best way to do that is to utilize a training approach that includes a strong emphasis on both resistance (weight) training and cardio at the same time.

Traditional training strategies use one or the other—not both. Combining the two into a hybrid training strategy produces results far superior to those that you could achieve through ordinary weight training or cardio training alone. EXAMPLES Tabata Using Tabata means alternating 20 seconds of exercise with 10 seconds of rest, nonstop for 8 sets. Unlike HIIT we typically prescribe for conditioning, but similar in its fat burning effectiveness, this style of training can be adapted any exercise; dumbell presses, barbell rows, jumping rope, rowing, push ups, whatever!

It’s painful, but the results are worth it! KB Swings The swing maximizes muscular endurance in the back and waist, is a great lower body strength builder and is a highly effective conditioning exercise. 1) The starting position of the Two Arm Kettlebell Swing is with the kettlebell on the ground in front of you, knees bent, your weight centered towards your heels and your back flat WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 9 2) Start the movement by hiking the kettlebell behind you and then drive your hips forward to propel the kettlebell through its arc.

The movement is similar to performing a standing broad jump, but of course you stay in the same spot 3) Your arms are just hooks and the power comes from the movement of the hips and the muscles of the posterior chain ie, hamstrings, glutes, lower back. 4) Swing the kettlebell to about chest height. At the top of the movement breathe out whilst contracting your quads, glutes and your abs (by tilting your pelvis up). 5) Breathe in and hold your breath as you let the kettlebell free fall back between your legs so that it passes through your legs as high as possible (to keep the arc tight and to stop unnecessary ulling on your back). Aim for your groin and then get your groin out of the way by taking you hips back 6) Although different trainees will have varying amount of knee bend the important thing is that the hips go back and thrust forward and that the quads do not take over the exercise. You should feel the movement in your hamstrings. If your quads are instead fatiguing then you are not taking the hips back at the bottom of the movement. Kettlebell swings are a fantastic exercise for fitness and conditioning and to develop strength and power in the posterior chain.

WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 10 Barbell Complexes “Barbell Complexes” are one of the most challenging types of Hybrid Conditioning that I’ve ever done! A Barbell Complex is a series of 6 to 10 movements, with no rest between each movement. Basically, you’ll pick up a barbell or a pair of dumbbells and you won’t put the weight down until all movements are finished. These workouts will make you angry, mad, sick and sad… then you will vomit. But they work like hell for getting you lean and jacked. WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 11 HERE ARE TWo EXAMPLES:

BAd ASS BARBELL CoMPLEX Overhead squat for 10 reps Hang clean for 10 reps Standing military press for 10 reps Bentover row for 10 reps Lunge for 10 reps on each leg Romanian deadlift for 20 reps Front squat for 10 reps Sprint 50 yards Cheat Curl to press for 10 reps Standing Front Plate Raise for 10 reps with each arm Forward lunge for 10 reps with each leg Bentover alternating row for 10 reps with each arm Reverse lunge with overhead press for 10 reps with each leg Romanian deadlift for 20 reps Sprint 50 yards For the barbell complex, start with an unloaded bar.

When you can bang out the exercises with no problem, then add another 5 lb plate to each side of the bar and keep going! For the dumbbell complex, start with 10 - 25 lbs and go heavier as you get in better shape. BAd ASS duMBBELL CoMPLEX WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 12 Creed 3: Train Concurrently for Multiple goals For many years now ‘bulking and cutting’ has been the most widely used strategy for gaining mass and getting lean. Bulking is the process where you work out really hard, eat a lot and don’t do any cardio. The idea is to put your body into ‘mass building’ mode so that you get really big.

But because you inevitably pack on excess fat along with the muscle, you then have to go through the cutting process to shed the unwanted fat. During the cutting phase you decrease your caloric intake and ramp up the amount of time you spend doing cardio. It sounds great in theory but in practice it doesn’t work so well. First, it’s not good for the body to be pushed along a roller coaster ride of ups and downs. Second, when you’re in the cutting cycle, there’s no way to avoid muscle loss because of all the cardio you’re forced to do to get lean. You wind up going from fat but strong to lean but weak.

And lastly, bulking and cutting can lead to insulin resistance, meaning that the body’s hormones become less effective at lowering blood sugar—resulting in more body fat and putting you at risk of developing serious health issues. The best way to approach this is to concurrently train to build muscle and lose fat at the same time. WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 13 By using hybrid training and synergistic nutrition strategies this is entirely possible because instead of the ‘calories in calories burnt’ approach, you focus on manipulating the hormone systems—aka the ‘traffic cops’ that manage the body’s metabolism.

Hybrid training is it at the heart of this strategy because by simultaneously incorporating both strength and endurance training, it works in harmony with the body’s natural systems, optimizing fat loss and mass gains. The nutrition approach focuses on the consumption of whole, unprocessed foods that include the proper balance of lean proteins, healthy fats and complex carbs combined with strategically-established periods of periods of negative energy balance. This systemic, hormone management approach allows you to simultaneously achieve your goals of building lean mass while cutting unwanted body fat.

Creed 4: different Sources of Calories = different Results Instead of counting calories pay attention to the quality of your calories. It is important to note that not all calories are created equal. WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 14 The truth is that different sources of calories will provide different results. Energy from the foods we eat comes from fats, carbohydrates and proteins—all of which are metabolized differently in the body. Additionally, within each of these categories there are metabolic distinctions as well.

Saturated fats are not metabolized the same as unsaturated fats and complex carbs are metabolized differently than simple carbs. Because the hormonal response varies depending on the food source, these are important differences that you need to understand when planning your nutritional strategies. For example, the consumption of protein provokes a greater thermic effect than the consumption of carbs or fats. Thermic effect refers to the amount of energy the body uses to process food. The lower the thermic effect the easier it is for food to be turned into body fat.

While proteins have the greatest thermic effect, saturated fats and simple carbs have the lowest. Now you know why consuming a 500-calorie donut is going to stimulate an entirely different hormonal response that getting that same 500 calories from organic chicken breast and steamed veggies. In fact the other day I read something that stood out to me in the WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 15 4-Hour Body by Tim Ferris. Way back in 1956, an interesting study was conducted by researchers Kekwick and Pawan. They compared three groups of persons on calorically equal diets of 90% fat, 90% carbs, 90% fat.

Though the number of calories each group consumed every day was the same, as shown below, the outcomes were very different: ? 1000 calories at 90% fat = weight loss of . 9 lbs per day ? 1000 calories at 90% protein = weight loss of . 6 lbs per day ? 1000 calories at 90% carbs = . 24lbs of weight gain So you see that not only do you need to think about what foods you put into your mouth but also about the hormonal responses those foods will initiate and how they will impact your metabolism. Creed 5: Rotate Nutrition Strategies Our incredible ability to adapt is one of the human body’s most amazing qualities.

Adaptability has not only been a key to our continued survival for thousands of years but it is also a cornerstone of the body’s optimal state of functionality. Our bodies get bored just like our minds do when faced with the same situations day in and day out. The mind doesn’t perform optimally when it’s bored and neither does the body. Actually, it’s just the opposite—our minds and our bodies function best when challenged and forced to adapt to new situations. WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 16 In fact, adaptation is the whole basis of muscle growth and strength gains.

When you lift weights, you are stressing the muscle cells. In reaction to this stress, the body ‘improves’ the muscle—making it bigger and stronger—so the next time you perform that same movement or exercise, there will be less ‘stress’ on the muscle. When it comes to nutrition, our bodies operate the same way. Our bodies obviously need energy to function—the energy we use is derived from the foods we eat. Maintaining the same nutritional strategy over and over for extended periods of time leads to diminishing returns because our bodies get accustomed to the same inputs every day.

Essentially, you hit a plateau, just like you eventually do when you don’t vary your weight training routine. But switch things up and all of sudden you see quick results—until the body gets used to that change. Then you need to switch to something else to get results again. Regular rotation of nutritional strategies keeps the body’s hormonal systems from getting accustomed to a particular diet or nutrition approach. And since the hormonal systems are the body’s traffic cops, charged with managing metabolism, regularly switching things up optimizes fat loss, strength gains and increases in lean muscle mass. WWW.

LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 17 Creed 6: Fasting for Anabolic Fat Loss Fasting is the act of ‘willingly abstaining from food. ’ It has been practiced by humans for thousands of years. It is practiced for a variety of reasons including religion, as a form of protest as well as for health. A fast can be as short as just a few hours or could last up to a week or more. Though an ancient practice, fasting has recently stepped back into the spotlight due to its effectiveness as a technique for stimulating anabolic fat loss. Most people tend to think that fasting leads to rapid loss of muscle mass, leaving you gaunt and weaklooking.

While that may be true for the ‘hardcore’ faster, for the strategic, occasional faster, that’s just not the case. In reality, strategic use of fasting can facilitate the loss of fat, without losing muscle mass (which is why it’s referred to as anabolic fat loss). This is possible because short, occasional periods of fasting activate a number of metabolic shifts in the body that signal the body to burn stored fat for energy. It is the frequent and longer-term periods of fasting that lead to loss of muscle mass, not just body fat. The hormonal shifts that we’re oncerned with begin shortly after the absorption of a meal is complete—typically between three and five hours after eating. For our purposes, the ideal period of fasting is from 3 up to 24 hours, WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 18 no longer than that. This is the ideal time period because the human body is naturally programmed to burn fat, not muscle, during brief periods of fasting. And since a regular, purposeful regimen of fasting is in tune with the ideal functioning of our hormonal regulatory systems it does not diminish performance either.

As long as you don’t fast all the time but do it strategically, you can achieve some remarkable loss of unwanted body fat. Creed 7: Partitioning Helps You Build Muscle & Burn Fat At The Same Time We’ve pointed out that hormones are the ‘traffic cops’ that direct the activities and responses that manage the body’s metabolic systems. We can have an impact on the way that hormones manage traffic in our body by manipulating factors such as diet, activity levels, weight training, sleeping, resting, managing stress levels and others.

Influencing the hormonal traffic cops provides a measure of control over the operation of our metabolic systems. One particularly strong influence we can have is on how our hormonal traffic cops partition the energy our bodies use. WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 19 When it comes to energy storage and usage, the body uses the same banks—fat, glycogen, muscle tissue or proteins—to deposit or withdraw energy. The process of managing where energy is deposited or withdrawn from is known as energy partitioning. Diet has an especially strong impact on the way our metabolic systems partition energy.

Interestingly, evidence indicates that brief, strategic periods of under eating can manipulate the hormonal traffic cops to tell the body to partition energy to allow for the simultaneous building of muscle and burning fat. This is made possible in part because these controlled periods of under eating trigger the release of Growth Hormone. One of the key functions of Growth Hormone is to maintain growth and lean body mass during short periods of time when we don’t have access to food. This occurs because Growth Hormone mobilizes fat fuel energy to be redirected (partitioned) to protein synthesis (muscle growth).

Our bodies are not designed to maintain muscle mass during extended periods of under eating—these situations trigger a survival response where the body is going to use anything and everything— including muscle—for fuel. But they are however, optimally designed to manage short, controlled periods of under eating, allowing us to convert excess body fat into lean muscle mass. WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 20 Bonus Creed: Eat High Fat Meals to Promote Steroid Production Fats have gotten a really bad rap over the past 15-20 years.

It seems like the day after food manufacturers figured out how to make ‘low-fat’ and ‘fat-free’ foods, the press started publishing stories about the dangers of fats, how they were responsible for the obesity epidemic and how bad they are for the body. But here we are 20 years later and Americans are fatter than ever before, despite all the low-fat and fat-free foods they’re eating. Seems like fats weren’t the culprit after all and in reality, it turns out that fats actually play an important role building bigger, stronger muscles. You know that the body produces steroid hormones (e. g. testosterone) that drive muscle growth and strength gains. The metabolic processes that trigger the production of steroid hormones are driven in large part by the foods we eat. Well, researchers have found that maintaining a low-fat, low-calorie diets appears to suppress the body’s production of steroid hormones. So cutting fats of your diet is not only a mostly ineffective strategy WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 21 for getting lean, but it’s also got some unwanted side effects such as reduced muscle mass and strength caused by diminished production of steroid hormones. Fortunately, we have a lot more knowledge today than we did in years past.

And what we know today is that an occasional high fat meal is not just tasty and satisfying, but it promotes natural steroid production as well. Normally, when planning what foods to eat as part of your get lean/build muscle diet, you should choose healthy, unsaturated fats over saturated fats, which have a lower thermic effect and in general are less healthy. However, to really stimulate the production of steroid hormones, it’s perfectly acceptable—and recommended—to occasionally eat high fat foods such as a good juicy burger without being concerned about unsaturated versus saturated fat content.

Do this from time to time and you’ll find that it’s good for both the mind and the body. WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 22 What’s Next guys? We really hope you enjoyed this FREE Report and acquired some valuable information that will help you jumpstart your own transformation. When you build muscle and burn fat you become a new person, a new you. Just because this report was free, do not discount the information. A lot of people have already put these tips to the test. But we’re not done yet. If you enjoyed this report you’ll love this follow up Presentation we put together for you. Strange Methods To Incenerate “Spongy Fat Weight” & Build Lean Muscle Tone 173% Faster http://www. leanhybridmuscle. com/free-presentation. php Stay Lean and Mean, Mike & Elliott P. S. We’ve got a ton of new content and fun information coming at you over the few days. If you’re not on our email list you can register here to get notified about updates. WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 23 ABouT The AuThors My name is Mike Westerdal and many of you know me as the founder of one of the biggest weight lifting sites on the Web, CriticalBench. com. Here’s my story and how I got involved with this project.

Like many of you I played sports in high school. I walked on the football team in college and played four years of D-IAA football. Keeping my body lean and strong during that period of my life wasn’t a problem. After all, we had practice, mandatory weight lifting sessions, morning running, and a very positive environment for keeping the body in an overall anabolic state. As the post-college years kept passing by, I found myself being less and less active. Don’t get me wrong, I found a new passion and started testing my merit in amateur powerlifting over the past few years; it has kept me really motivated and I do love the competition.

But…… something is missing. I’ve gotten a lot stronger but I’ve also gained over 25 lbs! It’s kind of embarrassing actually. Here I am preaching on the Internet and trying to help others stay fit and I go right ahead and pack on some unneeded pounds. Let me vent for a second. I’m 35 years young now and over the past few years I’ve felt like I’ve had to choose between being lean and WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 24 weak or strong and fat. I’m sick of the choice and I want it all. I want to be lean and strong at the same time, for good.

I don’t want to bulk up and add muscle mass getting fat, just to lose it all when trying to drop the fat and acquire muscle definition. With Hybrid training you too will discover that you can take the best of several training styles and do them all concurrently. I have to admit at first I wanted to keep this information to myself because I was making such rapid gains when I combined this kind of training with some new “Hybrid Diet” strategies, but Elliott convinced me the right thing to do is bring this information to the forefront. I almost eel like it’s my responsibility to do so since I can reach so many people online. Besides, I remember what it used to feel like to be so confused with all the different routines and supplements when I was a teenager reading the muscle magazines. I don’t want anyone else to feel that way. Just do us one favor okay? We got kind of caught off guard by the popularity of all this. So please just be patient with us. Elliott runs a gym called, Strength Camp where he trains athletes plus he has a wife and FOUR kids, so you can imagine his schedule is pretty full. Operating CriticalBench. om takes a huge amount of leg work on my part PLUS I’m actually expecting a baby with my wife Courtney in a couple months! Lots to do to get ready for that as well O WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 25 So we’ve both got a lot on our plate but we’ve both made the decision that we’re going to stay up late a few nights a week and do what it takes to continue sharing this journey with you. It’s humbling to get all the life changing emails and we both want to thank you for your interest and all the positive feedback. It really makes it all worthwhile. A lot of underground gyms across the country have implemented Lean Hybrid Muscle training.

With your help over the past few months we’ve really made some exciting strides that you can read all about on the following web page: http://www. leanhybridmuscle. com/build-muscle. php Keep training hard, Mike WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 26 Who the heck is elliott hulse? Elliott was born in Brooklyn, NY and grew up on Long Island. The oldest of four siblings and child to Belizian immigrants, Elliott has always been obsessed with health, fitness and becoming the strongest version of himself. As a child Elliott’s Uncle Elroy lived as a member of the Hulse household.

Uncle Elroy was an ex-gymnast, a Black Belt in Northern Shaolin Kung Fu, a marathon runner, a bodybuilder and would become, later in life, a strength and conditioning coach. Elliott began training with Uncle Elroy, with his brothers, using bodyweight exercises and odd objects at the tender age of four. In high school, Uncle Elroy taught Elliott how to train with barbells, dumbbells and plyometrics. As a result Elliott earned an athletic scholarship to play football for a Division 1aa program. After earning his bachelor’s degree, Elliott studied Exercise Physiology in graduate school.

Elliott has interned and studied under some of the best experts in the field of strength, health and fitness. Experts such as Paul Chek, Joe Kenn and Tom Mitchell have had a tremendous impact on Elliott’s training philosophies and convictions. WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 27 Why Should I Listen To Him? Today Elliott is the founder and owner of Strength Camp, a sports training facility in St. Petersburg Florida where he trains baseball, football, and high school wrestlers to get stronger and more explosive in their sports. Elliott is also a professional strongman, as well an author and publisher of over 50 books, audios and DVDs online.

He is also the publisher of HulseStrength. com and he supports other strength, fitness and health experts in sharing their knowledge through his publishing company, Hulse Strength Publishing. We Saved The Best For Last! Click here to get our 2 Best Strategies for Building Muscle and Burning Fat! With These 2 unique Strategies You’ll Pack On dense Ripped Muscle By “SHIFTINg” Your Muscle Fiber Type Into A Biologically Superior Type III Hybrid Muscle That utilizes 173% More Fat For Energy! http://www. leanhybridmuscle. com/free-presentation. php WWW. LEANHYBRIDMUSCLE. COM 28

Creating Competitive Advantage BUMGT: 760 Innostat case study This case study talks about Innostat company, which based in Boston, MA. The Innostat had charismatic CEO Jack Donally. This company was his creation. He had transformed the company from a small local manufacturer of scalpels and other surgical equipment into the world’s best-known maker of prosthetic limbs and surgical implants. Sales had reached more than $ 2 billion, with the company employing more than 5000 people at locations in Boston, Los Angeles, and Dublin, Ireland.

Mostly they are stakeholders in this business case. Innostat also had sales and marketing country organizations around the world. A few words about Jack. He had majored in history at the University of Massachusetts. He joined the company as a salesman after completing a tour of duty in Vietnam as a medical orderly. He loved to spend time talking to surgeons and researchers. He had that special skills that merged an interest in technology with an understanding of what customer needed and wanted. He typically came back from his travels full of ideas for new products.

He would go straight to the head of R&D and get him started on a project, rarely engaging Innostat’s senior team in discussion of these ideas and how they fit in to the company’s broader strategy. As a result, we see that power in hands of one person and, of course, his death will influence company’s life so much. This situation has a lot of disadvantages for future of the company. For example, marketing never developed as a strong function, and R&D, though technologically sophisticated, never developed marketing savvy.

Jack’s was bringing to the company some new modern idea, for instance, quality aspect. He believed that health care products had to be error free. That’s why the head of production was from Toyota – one of the best company in quality in the world. So basically it was simple structure – everyone reported to Jack and he made decisions as general strategic decisions as well as decisions in specific fields like marketing. He never asked advices. Last three years before Jack’s retirement, Innostat’s performance had declined dramatically, because the company met competitors in the market.

Some years before that, Innostat had a huge competitive advantage that only this company provided some products. But they haven’t developed new products. As a result, the company lost this competitive advantage. After a string of new offering in the 1990s, which delivered annual growth in revenue and profits of more than 15% a year, Innostat had not launched any major new products for the past four years, yet they were essential for profitable growth. In this difficult moment Stephanie Fortas became a new CEO of Innostat.

He has excellent education (PhD from Stanford and MBA from MIT Sloan School), experience (chief operating officer at Phasar, a medical technology company) and what is more important –she has good combination of technological skills and business savvy. She definitely understand that company needs changes and it worked before, it won’t work in future. Frank mentioned some problems and they are main problems for the company in this situation. Mostly Stephanie focus on them: 1) People are not thinking beyond their immediate functional departments.

They are focused only on making their numbers within their own units, so they don’t have so much reason to respond to product development initiatives from R&D. 2) Employees don’t believe R&D estimates of market potential. So they don’t understand why invest time and money on a promise they don’t believe. 3) Motivation is also problem, because the company needs more powerful incentives to get people thinking out of the box. Actually these are very logical problems for the company of charismatic leaders. They decide everything.

So there aren’t choices for employees to be independent, develop own projects and so on. Everything under control of good leaders, who only one person in the company knows how to develop a company. So now the main question for Stephanie is to reorganize company or not. I believe that yes. The company needs new products and impacts for development. Stephanie is good candidate for leading changes because her unique combination of marketing and technical skills. How does she see these changes? While she reading report, we understand it.

Management practices needs to be changed. Decision rights for new product development were to be taken out of R&D and given to cross-functional new product development teams headed by senior marketing people. The teams would be responsible for seeing the development from its early stages through to introduction of the product. The teams have to be interdisciplinary: bench scientists from R&D, a relatively senior manufacturing engineer, along with the manager of the plant making the product and someone from sales.

Also this report provided idea to create strategic marketing department. I’m not sure about the name of this department, but I guess we can call it simply strategic group. This group is needed for some reasons: 1) Stephanie can make mistake, which will negatively influence company’s future; 2) She doesn’t has clear and sequence plan and strategy; 3) She doesn’t has moral authority and respect in the company as a previous CEO. So it would be better to have support group. She has to be part of this group, but, probably, miss some meeting for helping creation of this group.

The main purpose of this group is identifying opportunities. 4) She can share risks with members of this group. There is one problem of this decision – who will be involved in this group? We have a few people: 1) Jim Pappas, director of sales and marketing. He mostly saleperson and marketing is a weak part of the company. Probably, we need change him from head of marketing position, but he has to be involved in this group. He understands what’s going on in market and as salesman he knows customer’s needs.

Anyway it would be a conflict, because Jim wouldn’t give up, but it’s essential decision, because he isn’t looking for new opportunities, but he is experienced. 2) Frank Timoshotsky is also possible member of this team. He is responsible for quality and I don’t see his bad impact on the company. He could be useful for strategic group. He is valuable person. But anyway this group will need new people, who can bring new ideas and new impacts. As I understand, Stephanie want not only new products, she want new culture in the company.

It’s much more difficult goal. I believe it would be better to organize some small interdisciplinary groups for development new products. They can be a good example of success inside company. Of course, it’s a huge risk, because nobody can guarantee success. On the other hand, it can bring excellent motivation to other employees. I believe it’s the best solution. The measurement o ? success in this case isn’t difficult – is there new product or not? What’s the market share of Innostat? What’s an annual profit?