FEDERAL CHARACTER AS A RECIPE FOR NATIONAL INTEGRATION: THE NIGERIAN PARADOX. BY M. L. BELLO E-mail: [email protected] com DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN ABSTRACT The problem of representational equity in Nigeria started with the problem of an unequal North-South duality. As if that was not problematic enough, the smaller southern component was split into two to crate a deleterious Southern duality and an equally debilitating national trinity. The attempt to redress North-South regional imbalance resulted in the creation of states but it resulted in weakening the South against the North.

This then became the justification for other methods albeit the Federal Character Principle for the promotion of a sense of belonging in the country by eliminating or at least minimizing domination resulting from imbalance in appointments. The purpose of the principle of federal character is laudable, unfortunately the application and operation of the principle tended to differentiate rather than integrate Nigeria. INTRODUCTION The assertion that Nigeria is a creation of British colonialism is no longer incontrovertible.

Motivated by economic considerations, the colonialists had wanted to limit their exploitative tendencies to the coasts. However, a combination of factors which were largely internal threaten the realization of their economic motive, this encouraged the British to move into the hinterlands. That crucial decision with time thus annulled the sovereignty and independence of the hitherto disparate autonomous socio-political entities which had inhabited Nigeria. The conquest of the country by the British inevitably led to the establishment of a system of administration alien to the people.

Two types of administration direct and indirect were tried out. The consequence of this resort is that the various nationalities inhabiting Nigeria have not been wielded into a nation in which all of them would have a stake (Ubah, in Saliu 1999). The immense concern of the British with exploitation and the ruthlessness that characterized its pursuit made them to be contented with keeping the nationalities as farther apart as possible, the so-called amalgamation of the Northern and Southern Protectorates in 1914 notwithstanding (Usman, in Saliu 1999).

Thus providing an unfortunate but conducive environment for mutual suspicion and distrust among the disparate groups in Nigeria. On October 1st 1960, Nigeria attained clientele sovereignty with lopsided Federation. The Political tripod was dominated by the “majors” to the exclusion of the “minority groups”. This brought to limelight the knotty issue of domination which evoked morbid fears of marginalization ( Leadership 2008). Nigeria’s population is estimated at 140 millions (Bello 2006). The country has between 250 and 400 ethnic groups depending on the criteria used.

A total of 374 ethnic groups were identified by Otite. These ethnic groups are broadly divided into ethnic “majorities” and ethnic “minorities” (Otite, 1990). The numerically and politically majorities ethnic groups are the composite Hausa-Fulani of the North with moslem majority, the Yorubas of the South-West and the Igbos of the South-East with christian majority. Against the backdrop of this ethno-religious composition, political issues in Nigeria are seen from their ethnio-religious perspectives, thereby giving credence to ethnic and religious jingoists and war lords.

Political offices and appointments are seen as battle fields among the various ethnic groups, where the battles must be fought with all the available weapons a group can muster (see Obi and Obiekeze, 2004; Suberu, and Diamond, 2004). The problem of acrimonious existence among the diverse groups and interests in the federation of Nigeria leading to mutual distrust, suspicion and inter-communal conflicts has become Perennial and endemic in the nation’s body Politic and has militated against the political stability of the country since independence.

The fear of domination of one ethnic group or section of the country by another and the national question of who gets what and how the national cake should be shared constitute a major factor of this problem. As a result of mutual suspicion existing among the various social groups, whatever the issue at hand in Nigeria, the patterns of reaction to it will be determined by geo-political as well as religous considerations.

This situation seriously hampers efforts at national unity as it applies to the building of a united Nigeria out of the disparate ethnic, geographic, social, economic and religious elements or groups in the country (Saliu, 1999; Agbodike, 1998; Gamberi, 1994; Kurfi 1998). Among the measures put in place and constitutionally guaranteed as a recipe for national integration is the doctrine of federal character. The principle of federal character was formulated and put into use by successive governments in Nigeria to address and hopefully mitigate the problem of diversity so as to ensure a peaceful, stable and united Nigeria.

As Ojo (1999) persuasively explained, Federal character principle as an integrative mechanism is defined as fair and effective representation of the various components of the Federation in the country’s position of power, status and influence. He however observed that the principle of federal character touches on array of problems in the political process which includes ethnicity, the national question, minority problem, discrimination based on a indignity, resources allocation, power sharing employment and placement in institution, etcetera.

It provides a formula for participation in the governance of the country in such away that a single section of the country will not dominate another or a segment dominating the rest. The basic assumption, as noted by Ojo (1994:) is that, if every segment of the Federation participates in governance, there would be almost equality in the country in the scheme of things and expectedly, it will engender a sense of belonging and national integration.

This paper is set out to examine critically the expediency of the federal character principle as an integrative mechanism with a view to pointing out whether or not it is succeeding in integrating Nigeria or widening the dichotomy among Nigerians. The paper is divided into four sections. Section one introduces the subject-matter, section two deals with conceptual clarification, section three examines the paradox of the federal character principle as an integrative mechanism while section four concludes the discussion. CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION

National Integration The term National Integration is now widely used to cover a large range of political phenomena. We will attempt to analyse these various uses and show how they are related. National integration is firstly used to refer to specific problem of creating a sense of territorial nationality which eliminates subordinate parochial loyalties. In this sense, it is generally presumed that there exists an ethnically plural society in which each group is characterized by its own language or other self-conscious cultural qualities.

This integration is used to refer to the tensions and discontinuities on the horizontal plane in the process of creating a homogeneous progressive reduction of cultural and regional territorial political community (Bamiseye, 2003). Secondly, national integration is often used in the related sense to refer to the problem of establishing national central authority over subordinate political units. Chizea (1985) sees national integration in this perspective. According to him, “it is a process leading to Political cohesion and sentiments of loyalty towards central political institutions”.

National integration is thus conceived here as the subjective feelings which individuals belonging to different social groups of historically distinct political units have towards a new nation. Such a feeling is created through the objective control which the central authority has over the entire territory under its claimed jurisdiction. The third use of the term integration, links the government with the governed. Implied in this usage is the notion of elite-mass relationship characterised by marked differences in aspirations and values. Integration occurs through the progressive bridging of the lite-mass gap on the vertical plane in the course of developing an integrated political process and a participant political community. We need to emphasize that the mere existence of difference in goals and values between the governing elite and the governed mass is not what constitute disintegration. So long as the governor’s right to rule is accepted by the governed. It is not also the disappearance of differences among the elites and mass that indicates integration but a situation whereby a pattern of authority and consent is established (see Ogunojeuite, 1979).

The fourth series of definition takes its root from the elite-mass definition. It refers in the main to a minimum value of consensus that is neccessary for the maintenance of a political system. These values may centre on ends to which the system aspires or means of achieving that desire ends. It presupposes therefore a minimum acceptable procedure for conflict resolution. Here the concern is with the legal norms with the legitimacy of constitutional framework and the procedure by which it should operate (Weiner, in Fagbemi 1987).

National integration, thus, can be seen covers a vast range of human relationships and attitudes ----the integration of diverse and discrete cultural loyalties and the development of a sense of nationality; the integration of the rulers and the ruled and the integration of the citizens into a common political process. As diverse as these definitions are, they have a common link in that they all point to the fact that integration, it is, that holds a society and a political system together. THE ORIGIN AND MEANING OF FEDERAL CHARACTER

The military government that planned the handing over of government to the civilians (in 1979) was by ample declaration, dedicated to removing the blemishes which brought about the decline and fall of the First Republic. Hence it initiated a prolonged consultative process which was hoped to produce the political atmosphere that will prevent the recurrence of the conditions inherent in the first republic. There was a vigorous determination to curb and control the potentials of ethnicity as a force for national disintegration. This resolve is actually translated into the text of the constitution that emerged from the consultative process.

The key phrase lies in the concept of “the federal character of Nigeria” (Ogunojemite, in Olugbemi 1987:224). As defined by the constitution drafting committee (1976), the federal character principle is: The distinctive desire of the people of Nigeria to promote national unity, foster national loyalty and give every citizen of Nigeria a sense of belonging to the nation (notwithstanding the diversities of the ethnic origin, which may exist and which it is their desire to nourish and harness to the enrichment of the Federal Republic of Nigeria).

The 1979 constitution amends the 1976 definition by dropping the passage in brackets and substituted a reference to “a sense of belonging to the nation as expressed in section 14 (3) and (4) of this constitution” Section 14 (3) clearly spelt out the modus operandi of the Federal Character principles as follows:

The composition of the government of the Federation or any of its agencies be carried out in such manner as to reflect the Federal Character of Nigeria and the need to promote national unity and also to command loyalty thereby ensuring that there shall be no predominance of persons from a few ethnic or other sectional groups in that government or any of its agencies (The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1979) In pursuant to this provision, various other provisions were made in the constitution to a guarantee that the federal character principle is operative.

This various provisions enjoins that the conduct of the affairs of central, state and local government bodies shall be carried out in such manner as to recognize the diversity of the people within its areas of authority and the need to promote a sense of belonging and loyalty among all peoples of the federation. THE PARADOX OF THE FEDERAL CHARACTER PRINCIPLE AS AN INTEGRATIVE MECHANISM The implication of the provisions of the 1979 and 1999 constitutions for federal bureaucracy in Nigeria are interesting.

Following these provisions, the composition of the federal public services for instance and the conduct of its affairs must reflect the federal character of Nigeria. And this can only be seem to have been done if it does not contain a predominance of persons from a few states or from a few ethnic or other sectional groups. In practice this means that in the appointment, promotion and postings of the federal public servants, every state, ethnic group religions or any other sectional group should be represented. Thus, the criterion of membership of the federal bureaucracy is accordingly heavily skewed in favour of representation.

Representation of states, ethnic or any other sectional groups especially religious groups in the composition of federal bureaucracy has, thus, superseded recruitment on the basis of knowledge and technical qualification as determined through a competitive examination. The situation is not different when it comes to promotion and postings. There are instances where capable, long serving and loyal federal civil servants have been denied promotion, precisely because the quota for their states in these posts has been filled. Under such situations, one’s erstwhile subordinates usually become one’s superiors overnight.

Postings of federal civil servants have followed the federal character principle. Every state would like to see its citizens in all the organs or agencies of the federal bureaucracy. Sometimes, this representation is seen in absolute numbers not just between states in the federation but also between the North and South as collectivities. In fact, the issue of representation based on the federal character principle has unwittingly degenerated into verbal and sometimes acrimonious exchanges between the North and the South of the country (Okoli, 1990; Obi and Obiekeze, 2004).

Paradoxically, the federal character principle has succeeded in institutionalizing North-South dichotomy rather than integrating it To those from the Northern parts of the country federal character is synonymous with quota system and means therefore a proportional absorption into federal institutions. To those from the southern parts of the country, it means an attempt by the “North” to infiltrate into areas which they hitherto regarded as “theirs” by right (Hotline,1987, Suberu, 2001; Dagaci,2009).

The federal character principle carried an inherent tug-of war between the claims of belonging to the nation and the claims of locally recognized diversity. It is the insisting on equal representation and individuals rights that will rock the boat of national integration. If we are to accept the intent of the concept that it carries an unambiguous and unchallengeable mandate for national integration, then the present provision has to be completely reexamined. (Okoli, 1990:5).

By 1986 the problems created by the constitutional provision of federal character had to be addressed by the political Bureau which was set up to examine the grounds for another constitution. The Bureau argued that: “The constitutional definition of Nigerian citizenship should, as a matter of urgency, be studied with a view to removing the difficulties and anomaly arising form the interpretation of the relevant section of the 1979 constitution (Report of the political Bureau 1986).

As Ayoade (1998) rightly argued, going by the constitutional definition of Nigerian citizenship, a dangerous dichotomy has developed between Nigerian citizenship and nativity of a state similar to the situation in the colonial period when Nigerians living outside their states of origin were regarded as native foreigners”. He noted that this category of Nigerians did not enjoy full citizenship rights in those states to which they migrated. Thus the operationalization of the federal character principle tended more to differentiate than to integrate.

That the principle of federal character tended to differentiate rather than integrate is not by accident, it is by design. This position is supported by Olugbemi (1987) and Suberu and Diamond (2004:27 when they implied that federal character as defined and pursued by the 1979 and the 1999 constitutions cannot succeed in integrating the people because it was an ideology of the minority ruling class aimed at protecting their interest. According to them, the doctrine holds a lot in stock for the economically dominant class to the exclusion of the masses from the political process in the country.

Firstly, it helps to divert attention from the internal economy where the mass of the people wallops in abject material want. Second, it helps to legitimize the dominant andexploiting class position in the society. Thirdly, it helps to prevent mass mobilization for development and by implication contributes in no small measure in maintaining an oppressive social order. The various components of the petty bourgeoisies namely the top echelon of the armed forces, civil services, politicians and business people compete amongst themselves for the share of the state property and privileges (Heineken 1984).

It is this intra-class factionalism within the economically dominant class over the state resources that the federal character as it is, attempts to give cover. In other words federal character by and large serve the economically dominant class that controls the state. This it does by giving explicit recognition to the essentially composite nature of the federation and provides ambiguous recipe for welding the federation into one ( Olugbemi, 1987:84; Otite, 1990:112; Ojo, 2006:122). The regime of federal character in Nigeria negates various definitions of national or territorial integration.

Even the definitions by Ibrahim Tahir of national integration as the emergence of a situation in which every citizen is a perfect substitute for any other citizen for the purpose of selection and recruitment to perform socially determined roles subjects only to qualification of resident and technical competence is not appropriate. The caveat of residence neutralizes the integrative component. The insertion of non-task considerations and a modish concern for ethnic representation offsets presumed merit and job-skill related criteria.

It is capable of resulting in a geometric diffusion of mediocrity (Okoli, 1990:8). This definition even contradicts that of Coleman(1958) and Rosberg (1971) who define territorial integration as “the progressive reduction of cultural and regional tensions and discontinuities in the process of creating a homogeneous territorial political community”. While this definition emphasizes the development of a homogeneous community, federal character is based on the recognition of ethnic differences.

Neither does the opertionalisation of federal character agrees with Ernest Haas’s definition of national integration as “a process whereby political actors in distinct national settings are persuaded to shift their loyalties, expectations and political activities towards a new centre, whose institutions possess or demand jurisdiction over the pre existing nation-state”. Federal character encourages the valorization of the ethnic individuality rather than a dissolution of the ethnic personality (Oyediran 1986), Tahir, 1986, Ayodele 1998; Suberu and Diamond, 2004).

The Principle of Federal character emphasizes the need for ethnic balancing as a necessity in the evolution of Nigerian citizenship and for ensuring less acrimonious relationships among the various peoples of Nigeria. It is argued that the principle “will make for a more equal federation to which more people will owe loyalty because, they see themselves represented meaningfully therein but unfortunately, the principle while stressing the imperative of ethnic balancing, invariably enthrones ethnicity and deemphasizes, the nation.

In the process, too, it strengthens the parochial, particularist orientations and individual ethnic attachments of Nigerians. These tendencies form the basis of disaffection among various groups in the nation. In addition, the formular has not adequately addressed the problems of the minorities especially in states made up of different and unequal ethnic groups (Uroh, 2000: Saro-Wiwa 1987; Agbodike 1998). The federal character principle has been manipulated by, and channeled to serve the overall interest of the petty bourgeois ruling class.

It is the members of this class who formulated and operate the principle. Even the debate on the principle, as carried in the Nigerian press has been mainly an elite preoccupation. Under the guise of the federal character principle, the members of the bourgeois class get themselves entrenched in power and exercise control over the machinery of state. Through the application of this principle too, they strive to reconcile their class differences through the operation of acceptable formulae for the allocation, distribution and sharing of national resources and benefits among themselves.

While they do this, they capitalize on, and fan the embers of the ethnic differences among the various Nigerian peoples to win the support of the masses in their areas. And in the course of this elite game, members of this class climb to positions, amass wealth and enrich themselves illegaly. Thus, the federal character principle is merely an elite ploy, which would not materially improve the lot of the down-trodden in whose name it is raised (Awa 1972, Agbaje 1989,Gboyega, 1989).

Similarly, the operation of the federal character in Nigeria has given more powers to the politically superior groups thus creating a wider power disparity between the strong and the weak. The politically weak are subjected to double jeopardy, a situation that is patently antithetical to national integration. This situation is a natural consequence of the hegemonial ethnic political scheming. Secondly, it confirms the Austinian position, that the constitution cannot be enforced against the power that interprets it because constitutions are essentially morality, not law.

But in a politicized plural society like Nigeria, morality is not a consensual value. If anything, in such environments mortality is a strategic variable (Ayodade 1998: 67; Jega, 2007). Thus, as long as the application of the federal character principle discriminates against one group and favours another no unity can result from such an exercise. The application is also falsifiable because distributive justice which it aims to achieve is of two types viz: Arithmetical equality and proportional equality. Simple arithmetical equality has been applied where the equality of all states is assumed.

But states are not equal in two main senses. They are not equal in population and they are not equal in the size of the pool of eligible candidates for appointment. Be that as it may, there is no greater inequality than the equal treatment of unequals. Proportional equality would therefore be more just and less discriminatory than arithmetical equality (Ayoade, 1982; Akinwumi, 2005). CONCLUDING REMARKS It has been observed that the principle of federal character is the achilles heel of Nigerian politics.

It is the most recent epiphany in Nigeria’s troubled federal theology. It was aimed at redressing historical imbalance and integrates the country. The attempt was to balance the ethnic groups in order to create a virile and united nation. Unfortunately, the exercise has turned out to be a mere substitute for substance. Thus, if we are to accept the intent of the concept that it carries an unambiguous and unchallengeable national integration mandate, and then the present definition cum application has to be re-examined.

This is because it gives equal weight to two potentially opposite principles which has been described as the concept of “irrespectivity” i. e. that no Nigerian shall have cause to feel aggrieved or excluded on the grounds of his/her place of origin, sex religion or ethnic grouping, and that of “irreducibility” i. e. ethnic equation in the main institutions of the state. The federal character may well have got the principle right but has pushed too far its “irreducible” principle. An all out application of the principle of irreducibility has already shown signs of head–on-conflict with the co-principle of rrespectivity. Nigerians are now being discriminated against in the country on the account of ethnicity. Example abound in the Educational and Economic spheres. This cannot make for loyalty to the Nigerian State and therefore bring about the much sought integration (Ayoade 1998, Ogunojemite 1997:112, and Juadu, 2007). The federal character as it is, is a doctrine of the emancipated educated elite in the civil services, armed forces and the business circles. It has little relevance to the integration problems of Nigeria.

As practiced during the tumultuous period of the second republic (1979-1983) under Shagari’s leadership, Abacha’s military junta and even under the present ‘democratic dispensation’, the principle essentially focused on enhancing the dominance of the ruling class through patronage. The constitutional provision of federal character and zoning system within the political parties is for appointing trusted prebends, clients and hangers-on in strategic offices who in turn manipulated their powers by allocation of contracts, import licences, access to bank loans, fertilizers etc.

Thus through the control of state power at the centre, the ruling class not only enhanced her leverage through patron-client alliances that cut across ethno-regional and religious cleavages, but also appropriated federal character principle to ensure its hegemony at all levels (Abubakar, 1998; Ogunojemite, 1987; Leadership, 2008). Thus, Nigeria’s experiences under successive governments as shown above exposes the limitations of federal character principle as a mechanism for enhancing national integration and participatory democracy in plural societies.

One of the fundamental weaknesses of federal character as practiced in Nigeria is that it tends to enthrone mediocrity in governance, at the expense of merit and professionalism. Also in the name of representation and national unity, federal character allows ethno-regional patrons and their clients to exploit and mismanage state resources without contributing to any meaningful development. Furthermore, by focusing on regional and ethnic representation, federal character exacerbates differentiation instead of enchancing mutual trust, accommodation and national integration (Abubakar 1998; -Farrest 1993 Onimejisin 2005).

So far, we have argued that although federal character principle has been conceived as a policy mechanism for addressing the contradictions of Nigeria’s national question arising from British colonial policies of divide and rule, as well as uneven development; the political class which inherited power since independence manipulates state power, ethno-regional, religious and sectarian cleavages for its selfish ends. The federal character as a means of achieving the desired aim of integration relies solely on the values of the ruling elite.

Although it has been able to keep the territory together more so with the present structure, it is equally able tot provide support for the central authority but in doing this it has only succeeded in widening the elite –mass gap because the value consensus that is necessary for national integration is lacking (Alabi, 2004). Perhaps, as Ojo (1999) and Popoola (2002) argued, the most chronic of the banes of federal character principle in Nigeria is that it potentially invades the integrity and standards of public bureaucracy and such other governmental bodies that normally require safeguards from the ravages of politics.

The result in this regard has not been the promotion of national loyalty but inertia and alienation as those who hail from states and communities which have suffered from federal character discrimination become resentful and also eventually alienated from the overall body politics. As Ojo (1999:5) and Okoli (1990:11) rightly submitted, competent people who are disqualified on the grounds of states of origin and such other spurious criteria cannot be willing materials on which to erect the unity of the nation. They must feel wanted in order to volunteer themselves for national sacrifice.

Be that as it may, our submission on the federal character principle as an integrative mechanism is that the principle, in practice has paradoxically exacerbated the division among Nigerians rather than uniting them. The principle in its operation cannot but do more harm than good to the fragile unity of Nigeria. Or what do we expect from a principle that robs Peter to pay Paul; certainly that principle cannot unite Peter with Paul. REFERENCES Abubakar. D (1998)” The Federal Character principle, Consociationalism and Democratic Stability in Nigeria” in Amuwo K. t al (eds) Federalism and Political Restructuring in Nigeria. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited. Agbaje, A. (1989)” Mass Media and the Shaping of Federal Character: A Content Analysis of four decades of Nigerian news papers 1950 – 1984” in P. P. E Ekeh and E. E. Osagae (eds) Federal Character and Federalism in Nigeria. Ibadan:Spectrum Books Limited. Agbage A. (1998)” The Ideology of Power Sharing: An Analysis of Content, Context And Intent” in Amuwo K. et al (eds) Federalism and Political Restructuring In Nigerian. Spectrum Books Limited Ibadan Nigeria.

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Anybody’s Son will do INTRODUCTION: This reading is about how the U. S. Marine’s socialize their recruits. How the socialization techniques of the Marine’s are compared to the socialization techniques that have brought me to my current place in life. Also tells why the socialization techniques of the Marine Corps. is so effective. Society as a whole could learn from using trust... Without trust the Marine’s would not be as efficient. The U. S. Marine Corps. Socialize their recruits through boot camp. In boot camp Marine’s are taught to command others with higher rank and proper authority.

Physical training, weapon training, and drills are the main elements of training. During boot camp the marine is taught the main purpose is to accomplish a military mission through a well coordinated team as opposed to individual effort. The marine is also taught the objectives of the Marine Corps. Leadership through training. Through basic training civilians are turned into Marine’s in three months. Insults and abuse are used to break their pride to destroy their ability to resist transformation of values, loyalty and attitudes that the Marine Corps. ntend. What enables a man to fight is their own self-respect. Their job is basically about killing and dying, so it is essential that the recruits learn the attitudes of group loyalty and interdependency, which will be their soul hope for survival and success. The socialization techniques of the marine’s are fairly similar to the socialization techniques that have been used to bring me to my current place in life. Only difference is I haven’t experienced the insults and abuse quite as bad like they have.

Like the marine’s who are taught to obey higher rank with proper authority, I too have been disciplined to obey my parents and elders and the law. The Marine’s socialization techniques include physical training, weapon training, and drills. Whereas my socialization techniques include school, work, and parenting. Team effort is better than individual effort in the Marine’s society as well as for me in modern society. Marine’s are in a disciplined society which only military values are allowed. I am in a modern society which allows me to have my own values.

Both Marine and I reside in a manipulative society. Society as a whole could learn from using trust. Without trust the Marine Corps. Would not be as efficient. The socialization techniques of the Marine’s are so effective, because during basic training the men are stripped of everything from their civilian lives. The Marine’s are kept enclosed from modern society during training. They are basically brainwashed. Drill instructors apply physical and mental pressure to the men to start the process of destruction.

The process of destruction is to erase the Marine’s former beliefs and confidence. Training to be a Marine is intense, constant abuse and insults. One of the main socialization techniques is motivation. “I can motivate a recruit and in third phase, if I tell him to jump off the third deck, he’ll jump off the third deck. Like I said before, it’s a captive audience and I can train that guy; I can get him to do anything I want him to do… They’re good kids and they’re out to do the right thing. We got some bad kids, but you know, we weed those out.

But as far as motivation-here, we can motivate them to do anything we want, in recruit training” – USMC drill instructor Paris Island. The Marine Corps. Demand alertness at all times. Building the Marine’s confidence and teaching them the attitudes of group loyalty and interdependency is a very effective socialization technique, for it will be their only hope of survival and success in combat. The socialization techniques for a majority of the men in the Marine Corp. are so effective because they are there willingly as volunteers.

There are others who are there against their will, but there are only a few men who cannot be made into a Marine. Physical violence is not necessary for the transformation, but has been used by most armies. Physical violence on top of all the mental abuse and insults… I think plays the biggest role in making the socialization techniques of becoming a Marine so effective. Reader: Henslin, James M. 2009. Exploring Social Life: Readings to Accompany Essentials of Sociology, 4th edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon – From war: Past, Present, and future, Gwynne Dyer(1985) pp 26-36

Unit 4: Leadership and Change Management Learning outcome: 1. Critically evaluate historical, classical and contemporary approaches to leadership theory. Indicative content: o Explain the importance of leadership theories o Describe historical, classical, and contemporary approaches to leadership theory o Compare and contrast these approaches Learning outcome: 2. Determine leadership approaches relevant for the 21st century, drawing on theories and tools as practised by leading international organisations. Indicative content: Identify leadership models and competency frameworks currently in use in organisations o Define the qualities required of people in leadership positions o Appraise generic leadership frameworks currently in use in organisations o Select leadership development initiatives both associated with and as alternatives to leadership competency frameworks Learning outcome: 3. Explore and examine your own personal and managerial effectiveness within an organisation through a process of personal reflection. Indicative content: Reflect on your own personal and managerial effectiveness within your organisation o Identify and put into practice areas for change within your own personal and managerial effectiveness style o Reflect on the gains made from the change in style o Plan a course of action to maintain reflection on your personal and managerial effectiveness within your own organisation Learning outcome: 4. Develop an in-depth understanding of the principles of change and the organisational change process. Indicative content: o Describe the principles of change and organisational change processes and the different approaches possible 4 o Identify and appraise real life examples of the organisational change process Explain external and internal triggers of change and innovation o Appraise these triggers of change and innovation Learning outcome: 5. Critically appraise change theories, tools and techniques. Indicative content: o Describe change theories, tools and techniques o Analyse these theories, tools and techniques within given organisations o Appraise the use of risk management techniques in the management of change o Assess the impact of globalisation on change theories, tools and techniques Learning outcome: . Critically appraise the implementation of the change process including resistance to change and practical management aspects. Indicative content: o Appraise real life examples of the change process and its implementation o Identify potential resistance to change including organisational culture and behaviour, organisational policies, power and the influence of individuals and groups. o Critically appraise strategies and approaches to overcome this resistance to change o Identify sources of conflict within change Identify strategies and approaches to deal with potential sources of conflict Learning outcome: 7. Develop the student’s ability to act as a change agent within an organisation. Indicative content: o Identify the attitudes, values and behaviour of a change agent o Reflect on your own attitudes, values and behaviour and identify areas of change required to be an effective change agent o Identify a plan of action to maintain effectiveness as a change agent 15 Learning outcome: 8.

Understand and appraise the need to integrate the management of change with other business and management disciplines. Indicative content: o Identify the need to integrate management of change with other business and management disciplines including finance, human resource development, marketing, IT and business strategy Appraise methods by which this integration could be achieved, using real life examples o Develop an integrated management of change plan of action for a chosen organisation Reading List for Unit 4 Unit 4: Leadership Change Management

Pettinger, R. Contemporary Strategic Management (2004) Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN-13: 978-1403913272 McConnell, C. Change Activist: Make Big Things Happen Fast (2002) Momentum. ISBN- 13: 978-1843040279 Drucker, P. F. Management Challenges for the 21st Century (2007). Butterworth- Heinemann Ltd. ISBN-13: 978-0750685092 Burnes, B. Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organisational Dynamics (2004). ISBN-13: 978-0273683360 Pettinger, R. Mastering Organisational Behaviour (2000). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN-13: 978-0333792797

Persuasive Essay Final Paper December 11, 2010 Persuasive Essay Final Paper The economic woes that plague the United States will be invigorated through the Legalization of Marijuana. Embracing cannabis for personal, medical, and industrial use will encourage economic growth and stability. The war on drugs in America consumes millions of dollars annually. Associating taxes in conjunction with eliminating risk of illegal activity will increase consumer confidence whereas the ease of growing requirements will boost substantial profit.

American economy can attain prosperity through Marijuana legalization. The history of Marijuana embargo is rich with debate and the future is known as cannabis commerce. Prohibition of the nineteenth century ushered in the popularity of breaking the law to obtain and consume alcoholic beverages. Elevated crime levels created the belief that alcohol was to blame for the horrendous acts upon society. Marijuana suffers the same judgment in America today, targeted as the primary reason for the ills that plague society.

A growing number of Americans clamor in support of the benefits of Marijuana in comparison with alcohol and other drugs proven to contribute to the futile downfall of this country. Public support for legalizing marijuana approaches 50% not just in California but in a growing number of western states including Washington, Oregon, Alaska, Colorado, and Nevada. It is reasonable to expect ballot initiatives on the issue in those states in coming years (Nadelmann, 2010). For most of human history marijuana has been utterly legal. Cannabis is not a recently discovered plant nor is it a long-standing law.

Marijuana has been illegal for less than 1% of the time that it has been in use. The known uses go back further than 7,000 B. C. (Cannabis News, 2009) Oakland California has set the stage for cannabis commerce through a pot growing school formed by advocate Richard Lee named Oaksterdam University. Lee states that his medical marijuana dispensary, nursery, and other pot-related businesses bring in as much as seven million dollars a year (Lee, 2010). Cannabis commerce is empowered as a bureaucratic tool to abolish decades of prohibition and encourage voters to legalize marijuana without fear of grievous consequences.

The highest earning agricultural products in America are and will remain to be Marijuana along with Hemp as a close industrial grade relative; both are forms of the cannabis sativa plant. Hemp is consistently recognizable as the fiber of the future; uses range from textiles and paper materials to fuel and personal care products. The need for lasting revenue in this country is evident and the solution lies in permitting local governments to authorize retail marijuana sales and accrue taxes. Currently the United States government has the right to act on the criminalization of growing, selling, and possessing marijuana in all states.

Alcohol-related deaths in America continue to rise as sales of alcoholic beverages soar with both of age and underage consumers. A former US surgeon general stated, "The evidence is overwhelming that marijuana can relieve certain types of pain, nausea, vomiting and other symptoms caused by such illnesses as multiple sclerosis, cancer and AIDS -- or by the harsh drugs sometimes used to treat them. And it can do so with remarkable safety. Indeed, marijuana is less toxic than many of the drugs that physicians prescribe every day. " An abundant amount of elderly and chronically ill people make up the American population.

To medicate is to smoke pot, and no one in the industry calls marijuana pot anymore; it is medicine now. Dealers are called caregivers, and the people who buy their dope—medicine, medicine—are patients (Robinson, 2010). With the budget crisis in majority of states in consistent turmoil, the government must act to rectify the situation and recover the nation’s reputation as a world leader. Considering this information will prove profitable for the economy and American society. In society today nothing is free of charge and the process of cannabis legalization will come with a price tag.

Eventually ample funds will emanate for prevention and treatment of more illicit drug abuse and its causes. Among the advances of marijuana legalization would be the reduction in cases of AIDS transmitted by drug abusers, reduced risk of drug overdose, and restoration of civil liberties. Opinions may vary on how the government should handle the distribution and consumption of marijuana once legalized. There is no reasonable doubt that legalizing this drug would rapidly reduce crime rates. No other proposition in history has a higher chance of substantially reducing the ravages of crime.

Societies that regard crime as one of its greatest problems and allows its leaders to refuse to consider the only known solution deserves the leaders and crime it gets. (Duke, 1993) The war on drugs indirectly and profoundly provokes crime. A Majority of arrests in American cities are for marijuana possession or related crimes, expending police resources and government funds that can improve the state of current economic frailty. Marijuana prohibition continues a chain reaction of crime-inducing effects around the world and close to home.

Assault and murder are contracted to defend drug-selling turf, settle disputes between drug merchants, and to appropriate drugs or drug money from dealers. Despite the efforts to reduce drug-related crimes in society, media sources and government bans have further glamorized marijuana by making it illegal. For decades this country has spent millions trying to cease the infiltration of drug cartels. Marijuana liberation will enable this country to rise above the shadow of the drug war and usher in the era of asylum for American economy. Marijuana prohibition is baseless government encroachment into the fundamental right to choose.

Some Americans deem marijuana ingestion as unethical; believing their moral standards should be adopted by all Americans. The truth of the matter is legalization of marijuana for medical reasons is viewed prosperously by many Americans, including members of the medical community and congress. In fact, marijuana is more innocuous than majority of prescribed medications given freely to treat symptoms that continue to cripple society. Introducing the country to a fresh source of revenue will propel the nations climb out of the most distressing recession in decades. References The evidence is overwhelming. (2004, March)

Retrieved from an editorial in Providence Journal with Former US Surgeon General J. Elders, MD Marijuana Legalization, not if but when. (2010). Retrieved from http://www. alternet. org Author: E. Nadelmann Marijuana tax Act of 1938. (2009, November) Retrieved from http://www. cannabisnews. org University of Bud, man creates pot growing school. (2010, Spring) Retrieved from http://www. latimes. com/ Perspective on the War on Drugs (1993, December) Retrieved from an archived article from The Los Angeles Times with Author Steven B. Duke The United States of Amerijuana. (2010, November) Retrieved from http://www. time. com/

Many of us have role models in our lives and to most people role models are athletes and movie stars, but to me a role model is much more. To me a role model is a person who has positively influenced someone in life, and is not a person filled with selfishness and greed. They help shape someone’s personality, and characteristics. They are people who someone can look up to for advice in a hard situation, and know that they will give those words of wisdom. They will never judge our past actions, instead only look to help because they really care.

A role model is someone who we should never feel awkward talking to about our problems. A perfect role model for me is my mother. She is a wonderful human being. She’s smart, wise, ambitious, patient and such a loving person. There are no words that can describe my gratitude towards her, but through this essay I will describe some of her characteristics that makes her my role model. To begin with, I would like to describe my mom’s ambition. Life was not easy with her, my father died when my bother was six years old and I was two. She was a single mother of two children and the head of the family.

She woke up every morning with the positive attitude, and a smile on her face, even when she did not feel like it. She was always searching for ways to improve her persona, and live a happier life. My mom has worked really hard to give my brother and I the lifestyle we had. For example on my birthday she saved money for a month to do my birthday party and, she never missed one. My mom’s ambition to succeed in life has allowed her to grow into a wonderful person full of kindness and knowledge. Ambition is a great virtue to have, and that is one reason why my mother is my role model.

My mother is a hard worker, she never complains about her life also, she always gets what she wants. If I ever need my mom’s advice or help she will be always there for me even today. My mother is a wise, smart and educated person, she has not any masters degree and for me she’s an example of what intelligent person should be like. Sometimes she comes home tired from work, and she still makes time for her family. She makes sure that we have done our homework and is always making sure we have everything that we need. I learned from my mother that if I work hard, I will get what I want.

She always advised my brother and I to go to school so that we may become professionals. She always reminds us about the importance of education and knowledge. She always said “you will not get anywhere without hard work”. For example, when I was six years old I told my mom that i hated school and wanted find a job and leave the school. My mom showed me a person who was cleaning streets, and a person who was rich. She said if you want to clean streets you don’t have to go to school, but if you want to be successful and have money go to school and work hard it no matter how smart you are, to be consistent and perseverant is your key.

She has shown me to stand on my own two feet and not be dependent of anyone for the success or failure in my life. Next, my mother taught me to be a positive person, and to help people when they are in need, and of course to do good things in my life. When we help people we are doing a good thing, that’s how good, positive spirit comes and stays around us, and that how we always get good things back. This is a good luck that we make for ourselves. It’s a secret of life, which not everyone believes in or follows it. My mom always says “treat everyone the way you want to be treated”.

She said: “the more you give, the more you get”. Believe in good things that can happen, forgive people if they hurt you and also forget if they did hurt you. For example, joy, health, money, relationships, love, happiness and everything we ever wanted, we can get it by believing in it, and of course we have to do something to get it. My mother is my pride! She fills my heart with all the joy and love. She said that being a parent is her passion and it filled her heart with so much joy. Aside from being an outstanding person, she is a wonderful cook.

I loved to come home from school and smell the great food that she has prepared for the day. Cooking is one of the many things that she has taught me. She always says that it is important for women to know how to cook, because it will help me in life. All of these characteristics that my mother has taught me will help me in my life. Becoming a successful person is a tough thing to do. For example; it requires a lot of hard work and responsibility. Many people do not live this type of life; they would like to live because they are not responsible people.

So in other words, life only requires a little bit of hard work and determination. In conclusion, my mother is the person who has impacted my life the most. She is the most important person in my life and I know that she will be always there for me with help, her love, and her care. She’s a wonderful person, she admires the beauty of life, and as a result she is always in a good mood. Now, like my mother, I’m a positive thinker, and I am a creative person who believes life is what you create it to be. I also know if I have o make any big decisions in my life, I can always ask my mom for advice because she has the wisdom and experience. I also know that she will tell me the truth even if it is not something that I want to hear, but she will tell me with kindness and without any judgment. My mother is my role model because she does so much for me; she gives me everything she has just to make my life easier. I love my mother and I am so thankful that she is the way she is. My mother is always there for me and I would do anything for her.

JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF MEDICINE Volume 91 March 1 998 Death and dying-a Muslim perspective Aziz Sheikh MRCP MRCGP J R Soc Med 1998;91:138-140 The care of dying patients and their relatives is one of the most difficult aspects of a doctor's job. Enabling an individual to die with dignity can also be deeply rewarding. Britain today is a cosmopolitan society made up of people from numerous religious and cultural traditions. The care of patients with backgrounds different from one's own requires knowledge and skills. There are approximately 2 million Muslims in the UK1. Although most originate from he Indian subcontinent2 substantial numbers have arrived recently from Africa and to a lesser extent Central Europe. Islamic Law (Shariah) is based on the Qur'an and Hadith (the practices and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad)3. The Shariah defines certain expected behaviours at the time of death and these are generally adhered to by Muslims in Britain. In this paper I offer some guidance on caring for Muslim patients in their final illness. MUSLIM BELIEF REGARDING DEATH, ABORTION AND EUTHANASIA For a Muslim, death marks the transition from one state of existence to the next.

Islam teaches that life on earth is an examination-the life to come is the eternal abode where one will reap the fruit of one's endeavours on earth. Death is therefore not to be resisted or fought against, but rather something to be accepted as part of the overall divine plan4. Further, death is not a taboo subject in Muslim society and is a matter upon which one is encouraged to reflect frequently. In counselling of Muslims regarding a terminal illness, or relatives after a bereavement, these points should be borne in mind. Islam views life as sacred and a trust from God (Allah).

Termination of pregnancy is therefore generally not permissible within the Islamic frameworks. If the subject needs to be broached this should be done with extreme sensitivity. To step outside the Islamic framework and have an abortion may engender much guilt. Similarly, deliberate euthanasia is prohibited6. Note, however, that undue suffering has no place in Islam and if death is hastened in the process of giving adequate analgesia then this is allowed. What is important is that the primary intent is not to hasten death. THE FINAL ILLNESS Certain death customs are almost universally practised by

Muslims. Ideally Muslims would wish to die at home7. Making death clinical and remote in a hospital setting is not in keeping with the Islamic tradition. The dying person will expect to be visited by friends and relatives, who are encouraged to pray for his or her welfare in the life to come. This is a time when Muslims seek each others' forgiveness for excesses that may have been inadvertently committed. Fifty people visiting in the space of a few days would not be exceptional; so strict adherence to '2 visitors per bed' will cause difficulty for all concerned.

Members of the immediate family will often stay by the bedside reciting from the Qur'an. Having a copy of the Qur'an on the ward, for those who have not remembered to bring their own, is a kindness. The daily prayers play a pivotal role in the day-to-day life of a Muslim, and prayer assumes an even greater role in times of suffering and distress. Family members will encourage the dying to continue with their prayers as long as they are able to do so. Before the prayer, ablution is performed; bed-bound patients will need help in this respect. Muslims pray towards Mecca, which is to the outh-east of Britain. Again for the bed-bound, positioning the bed in the direction of Mecca will simplify matters. Having a compass and prayer timetable available would be very useful; a prayer timetable is easily available from most local mosques. Many of the visitors and relatives will also need to perform their prayers and, unfortunately, hospitals seldom cater for this need8. DEATH, WASHING AND BURIAL When a Muslim dies, the eyes and mouth should be closed and the limbs should be straightened. The body should ideally face in the direction of Mecca. It is a religious equirement that the dead be buried as soon as possible and considerable family distress can be avoided by speedy production of the death certificate. The body will be washed and shrouded in simple unsewn pieces of white cloth. A funeral prayer is held in the local mosque, and family and community members follow the funeral procession to the graveyard where a final prayer is said as 138 the deceased is laid to rest. Events occur in rapid succession Department of Primary Health Care and General Practice, Imperial College School of Medicine, Norfolk Place, London W2 1 PG, UK

JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF MEDICINE Volume 91 March 1998 and often the dead will be buried within 24 hours. The Muslim is always buried rather than cremated9. POST-MORTEM EXAMINATIONS AND ORGAN TRANSPLANTS When 'new' issues arise that are not explicitly dealt with in the Shariah, Muslim jurists are required to study the issue in question and using the principles enshrined within the Qur'an and Hadith give a legal opinion (fatwa). A fatwa is an opinion and therefore not binding; thus one can expect a broad range of views on a given question, and this is true of post-mortem examinations and organ transplantation.

The majority opinion is that post-mortem examinations are not allowed. One reason is that the examination will inevitably delay the burial. Secondly, Islamic belief holds that it may be possible for the deceased to perceive pain. This is based on the statement of the Prophet Muhammad that 'to break the bone of a dead person is like breaking the bone of a living person'10. A small but growing minority hold that post-mortem examinations are permissible11. Where the law of the land demands post-mortem examinations-i. e. at the coroner's request-Muslims have no choice but to comply.

In this case informing the coroner's officer that the deceased is a Muslim may speed up the process since many coroners are aware of Muslim sensitivities. If for any other reason a post-mortem examination is considered desirable, family members must be told they have a free choice in the matter and their views must be respected. With regard to organ transplants opinion is more divided. For the reasons cited above many oppose the donating of organs. Further, it is argued that since life is a trust one has no right to 'donate' any part of one's body to someone else.

An increasing number of Muslims, however, are of the view that, in cases where it may save life, organ donation is permissible on the basis of the Islamic doctrine that 'necessity allows the prohibited'12. CASE HISTORIES I close by offering two examples of poor practice and one of good. Case I A married genetics student attended the antenatal bookingin clinic in her first pregnancy. A routine dating ultrasound scan revealed that the fetus had increased nuchal thickness. Suspecting a diagnosis of Down's syndrome her consultant referred her to a tertiary centre for further investigations.

Here she was followed up with serial ultrasound scans which revealed various congenital malformations that were considered incompatible with life. She was repeatedly a less than 1% chance of survival. This she consistently declined, stating that abortion was against her faith. Ultrasound monitoring continued until 34 weeks when she spontaneously went into labour. The baby, stillborn, was named and buried and is frequently visited by family members. Case 2 The parents of Zahra (not her real name), a 12-year-old girl with a progressive neurodegenerative disease, were invited o attend for a consultation to discuss their daughter's prognosis. The consultant responsible for Zahra's care informed them that she had deteriorated considerably over the past few months and that she was likely to deteriorate further in the near future. Throughout the discussion it was emphasized that Zahra had led a fruitful life, and that maximum effort would be made to ensure that she was kept pain-free. The session was predominantly doctor-led, with the family being given little opportunity to discuss their hopes and fears. It ended with the clear message that

Zahra's end was imminent. She died shortly afterwards. Despite the best intentions of the clinician concerned, his lack of awareness of Muslim perspectives on the subject of death and dying led to a dysfunctional consultation. Though the issues raised by the consultant are frequently of great concern to those of a secular belief framework, they are of lesser concern to Muslims. Death is not seen as the end but rather as a passage into the eternal life. With regard to the impending or actual death of a child, it is customary to comfort the family by reminding them that children are ure and innocent, and hence have Paradise assured to them in the life to come. For a Muslim, there is no greater achievement. Case 3 A woman in her late 70s was admitted to hospital with pneumonia. It had been her third admission with the same condition in as many months. Tired and weak she had lost the will to continue and had stopped eating and drinking. After a few days of intensive treatment with little sign of improvement the consultant communed with family members regarding further management. A joint decision was made to suspend active treatment and to let nature take its course.

She was kept comfortable with analgesia and regular mouthwashes. The family were given open visiting access and there remained someone with her at all times. When she died a few days later the necessary paperwork was completed immediately and she was buried within 12 hours. KEY MESSAGES *Muslims have beliefs and rituals surrounding death that advised to have a termination on the basis that the baby had are poorly understood by the medical profession. Greater 139 IJOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF MEDICINE Volume 91 March 1998 understanding and sensitivity in this respect would help ase suffering and distress both to patient and family. *Visiting the sick and dying is a religious duty. Muslims dying in hospital may therefore have many visitors. Relaxation of hospital visiting regulations would facilitate this. * Prompt issue of the death certificate will allow the burial to take place rapidly, in keeping with Islamic Law. * Post-mortem examinations are generally prohibited. In the event of a post-mortem being desirable or necessary, this should be discussed fully with the family, who should be informed of their rights. * On organ transplantation, mixed views are expressed by he Muslim community in Britain. REFERENCES 1 Qureshi B. Transcultural Medicine Dealing with Patients from Different Cultures. London: Kluwer, 1989:161 2 Badawi Z. Islam in Britain. London: Ta Ha Publishers, 1981:10 3 Doi AR. Shariah: The Islamic Law. London: Ta Ha Publishers, 1984:21- 58 4 Neuberger J. Caring for Dying Patients of DjJerent Faiths, 2nd edn. London: Mosby, 1994:36 5 Ebrahim AF. Abortion, Birth Control and Surrogate Parenting-An Islamic Perspective. Indianapolis: American Trust Publication, 1989:67-77 6 Darsh SM. Islamic Health Rules. London: Ta Ha Publishers, 1986:11-12 7 Gartrad AR.

Muslim customs surrounding death, bereavement, postmortem examinations, and organ transplants. BMJ 1994;309:521-3 8 Sheikh A. Quiet room is needed in hospitals for prayer and reflection. BMJ 1997;315:1625 9 Black J. Broaden your mind about death and bereavement in certain ethnic groups in Britain. BMJ 1987;295:538 10 Al-Asqalani AIH. Bulugh Al-Maram. Riyadh: Dar-us-Salam Publications, 1996:199-200 11 Risper-Chaim V. The ethics of postmortem examinations in contemporary Islam. J Med Ethics 1993;19: 164-8 12 Anon. The Muslim Law (Shariah) Council and organ transplants. Accident Emerg Nursing 1996;4:73-5 140

Eriberto Lopez Asia The Nostra Aetate declaration means "In our Time" in Latin. It discusses the relationship of the Church with Non-Christians, which was proclaimed by Pope Paul VI on October 28th of 1965. "What happened in Christ's passion cannot be charged against all the Jews, without distinction, then alive, nor against the Jews of today.... We cannot truly call on God, the Father of all, if we refuse to treat in a brotherly way any man, created as he is in the image of God. .. No foundation therefore remains for any theory or practice that leads to discrimination between man and man or people and people, so far as their human dignity and the rights flowing from it are concerned. The Church reproves, as foreign to the mind of Christ, any discrimination against men or harassment of them because of their race, color, condition of life, or religion. " This is a quote from the Nostra Aetate.

What I believe it means is, the people of the world are getting closer as time progresses and strengthening their bonds. The Church is now looking closer to the relations between Catholics and Non-Catholics and other religions, in order to help continue this transition of peace. The Nostra Aetate declaration condemned discrimination and persecution, and specifically denounced anti-semitism. The Nostra Aetate declaration of the Second Vatican Council set in motion a dynamic that continues to shape the modern Church.

It is intended to be a teaching about the relation of the Church to people who belong to other religious traditions, with particular attention paid to Jews, Moslems, Hindus and Buddhists. Nostra Aetate continues to say that the “catholic church rejects nothing that is true and holy in these religions”(Nostra Aetate). Which means that now that it is our time in the modernist age it should not matter what one is devoted to as long as one does good. And through this tolerance all religions should come together, and put the past in the past.

All these religions share questions to the unsolved questions of the human condition. “What is man? What is the meaning of… life? ” what will happen when we die? (Nostra Aetate). These questions should not divide mankind in to separate religions but should bring them together in order to find the answers to the mysteries of humanity. Nostra Aetate dictates that in our time there should be no discrimination between men. And through this brotherhood we can achieve the answers that make the human heart restless.

Abstract Break even analysis is a method that has been applied by many business operations in determining the least operational points which they can operate and still remain in business. It is very important for a business that has just entered the market and wants to win its market share before it can set the selling prices for its prices. It is also applicable in events where here are a number of competitors a firm wants to win. Break even point is defined as the point below which a business cannot operate. At this point, the business should be able to cover all its costs, which are fixed and variable costs.

It is measured in either product units or dollars. Bill French, Accountant The break even analysis is a very important tool to help any firm in deciding on the best operational volume. It requires three types of costs namely the fixed cost, variable cost and selling price (Dayananda, et al, 2002). As Bill French puts it, “the level of operation at which total costs that is, variable plus non-variable are just covered is the break even volume” and it is the least volume that an organization should operate in order to remain in business (Harvard Business School, 1987).

There are several assumptions that are made in order to calculate the break even figures since with all the factors considered, it is very hard to compute the figures. In determining the break even figures for the firm, French makes some implicit assumptions. Most of these assumptions are evident in the conversation he is having with the participants at the meeting. In his calculations, Mr. French does not give room for the excepted sales volume increase which according to Cooper, one of the participants from the production department, will increase sales by 20%.

He further assumes that the plant capacity is only at 90% utilization implying that it is not fully utilized. However, we learn from Williams (who is from the manufacturing department) that the plant capacity may be at 100% as he argues that in some of the sectors, there is no room for further expansion. Mr. French does not consider the three products produced by this firm individually but rather on averages proving that it will not be easy to calculate break even figures for each of the products individually.

In fact, French argues “that there is only one break even point for the firm” and thus it is the only point to be hit whether considering each product individually or in group (Harvard Business School, 1987). It is evident that the method used by French to calculate for the break even analysis does not allow for change in the product mix since he assumes that nothing will be altered. For instance, the price of product C is very low and therefore need to be included in the analysis that there are products which may change in prices but this is not the case with French.

Bill has also assumed expected union demands, taxes and dividends. With French revising his method of calculating the break even analysis, he will have to consider some other increase and decrease in costs. This will make the break even figures change to 2,000,000 units as the aggregate figure. The sales volume is 400,000 units for product A, 400,-000 for product B and 950,000 for product C. The unit sales will be $6. 948 as the aggregate, $10 for A, $9 for B and $4. 8 for C.

In order to pay the extra dividend of $25,000, the firm has to increase the sales volume as follows; the price per unit remains at $1. 2, variable cost at $0. 75 while fixed costs increase to $(520,000 +25,000) =$545,000. The units to cover for this; 1. 2x=0. 75x+$545,000= $545,000/0. 45x; x=1,211,111 units. In order to meet the union demands of 10% increase in production costs, it follows that the total variable costs will have to increase by 10% since production costs are in the variable costs category. The calculation of the break even units will be; 1. x=0. 75x+0. 1x+$525,000= $525,000/0. 35x; x=1,500,000 units. In order to meet the union demands and pay for the extra dividends, the break even point will be; 1. 2x=0. 75x+0. 1x+$525,000+$25,000= $545,000/0. 35x; x=1,557,142 units. With the break even analysis, the firm will easily make a decision on whether to alter the existing products. It is true with the alterations, the sales volume has to increase and if the firm finds that it is not possible to make the extra sales, it will have to stop with the alterations.

For instance, it is planned that there is extra investment on the C product which will mean an increase in costs. Since the firm’s capacity is thought to be at the maximum, it will not be possible to make the increased investment. Break-even analysis is very useful tool in all business operations. Although it has the disadvantages brought about by the assumptions made, it has its own advantages as well. The disadvantages are the assumptions that everything produced is sold and at the same price.

However, the advantages which make it useful and each of the firm is advised to use it are that it is cheap and it helps a firm acquire a loan. With its relationship of returns, volume, production and cost shown, the firm will be able to make decisions on whether to take some business ventures or to leave them (Accountingformanagement. com, 2009). With the use of a break even analysis, it is very easy to determine whether a firm is on the best track of doing business without making profits or losses. References Accountingformanagement. om. (2009). Break Even Point Analysis-Definition, Explanation Formula and Calculation. Retrieved from http://www. accountingformanagement. com/Break_even_analysis. htm#Benefits%20/%20Advantages%20of%20Break%20Even%20Analysis Dayananda, D. , Irons, R. , Harrison, S. , Herbohn, J. & Rowland, P. (2002). Capital Budgeting: Financial appraisal of investment projects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Harvard Business School. (1987). Accounting: Bill French, Accountant. Retrieved from http://www. hbsp. haravard. edu.

How can Lei apply the four step control process outlined in the text to address the problem of misreporting hours? Solution: A Control system has four control steps i. e. Setting performance standards, Measuring performance, Comparing performance against the standards and determining deviations, Taking action to correct problems and reinforce successes. Lei can apply all the four control process in the following ways: 1. Setting performance standards: Lie can set the standard performance for achieving organizational goals.

Standards can be set on departmental level such as financing, operating, legal etc. Performance standards are set to compare it with the actual performance & take corrective action. 2. Measuring performance: After setting performance standard for Sandwich Blitz Inc. , compare it with the actual performance. In this situation no. of units produced & the no. of working hours reported in the time sheet can be measured. 3. Comparing performance against the standards and determining deviations: After measuring the actual performance by employees, it must be compared with the set performance standard.

If the deviation exists determine the cause of deviation. In this situation if the no. of units produced is less than standard than determine the reason for deviation by enquiring supervisors. 4. Taking action to correct problems and reinforce successes: After comparing & determining the deviation corrective actions must be taken immediately by the management. In this case Lie should take corrective action by immediately modifying or update the employee handbook, so that this type of discrepancy will not be repeated in the future.

American Muslims and the effect of Negative Bureaucratic Terms Negative bureaucratic terms refer to the terms that are used by the members of a bureaucracy. These terms have the sanction of the authority behind them. This is why Koppelman believes that negative bureaucratic terms are powerful purveyor of negative images. (Koppelman, 2011) My topic of discussion is terrorism and the terms used by the government officials to refer to the terrorists.

Terrorism is a global problem and every single effort to prevent terrorism is praiseworthy. But the problem starts when some politicians, state government officials, members of the congress and senate try to link these terrorists and their activities to the religion of Islam. For example, in 2010, governor’s office of Texas released the Texas Homeland Security Strategic Plan 2010-2015. It includes information about state’s preparation, response and recovery efforts for all types of threats for the years 2010-1015. Release, 2010) Some of the terms used in that report are “Islamic extremists”, “Violent Islamic extremists”, “Jihadists” etc. (Texas Homeland Security, 2010) I think using these types of terms are wrong because it gives a message to the American people that Islam is somehow related to the terrorists and their activities are sanctioned by Islam- which is not true at all. This is why I believe state officials should refrain from using words like “Islamic terrorism” because it gives Islam a bad image and portrays all Muslims as terrorists.

The report also describes terrorist groups like Hamas, Hezbullah and Al Qaeda as “Islamic Terrorist Groups”. (Texas Homeland Security, 2010) But in reality, they are all violent political groups whose members happen to be Muslims. I have no sympathy for any member of these groups but I think associating Islam with terrorism in this fashion is very offending to the American Muslims. In an extensive research, Robert Pape- a political science professor at the University of Chicago concluded that, Islam has nothing to do with terrorism.

According to Pape, the root cause of terrorism is “foreign military occupation “. (Pape, 2010) I think government officials need to realize that using these types of terms doesn’t help the cause at all. It creates more problems. Associating Islam with terrorism by the members of congress, senate and other state and government official is morally wrong. It is fuelling the growing anti-Muslim sentiment in America and is the number one cause of Islamophobia in America.

According to a New York Times report, anti-Muslim discrimination in America is all time high now. (Greenhouse, 2010) Koppelman’s theory of negative bureaucratic terms says that these terms are more harmful than social derisive terms. Examining the current condition of American Muslims will prove that he is absolutely right. Negative bureaucratic terms lay out the foundation for social derisive terms and then it becomes the reason for pain and suffering for a minority group.