Creating Competitive Advantage BUMGT: 760 Innostat case study This case study talks about Innostat company, which based in Boston, MA. The Innostat had charismatic CEO Jack Donally. This company was his creation. He had transformed the company from a small local manufacturer of scalpels and other surgical equipment into the world’s best-known maker of prosthetic limbs and surgical implants. Sales had reached more than $ 2 billion, with the company employing more than 5000 people at locations in Boston, Los Angeles, and Dublin, Ireland.

Mostly they are stakeholders in this business case. Innostat also had sales and marketing country organizations around the world. A few words about Jack. He had majored in history at the University of Massachusetts. He joined the company as a salesman after completing a tour of duty in Vietnam as a medical orderly. He loved to spend time talking to surgeons and researchers. He had that special skills that merged an interest in technology with an understanding of what customer needed and wanted. He typically came back from his travels full of ideas for new products.

He would go straight to the head of R&D and get him started on a project, rarely engaging Innostat’s senior team in discussion of these ideas and how they fit in to the company’s broader strategy. As a result, we see that power in hands of one person and, of course, his death will influence company’s life so much. This situation has a lot of disadvantages for future of the company. For example, marketing never developed as a strong function, and R&D, though technologically sophisticated, never developed marketing savvy.

Jack’s was bringing to the company some new modern idea, for instance, quality aspect. He believed that health care products had to be error free. That’s why the head of production was from Toyota – one of the best company in quality in the world. So basically it was simple structure – everyone reported to Jack and he made decisions as general strategic decisions as well as decisions in specific fields like marketing. He never asked advices. Last three years before Jack’s retirement, Innostat’s performance had declined dramatically, because the company met competitors in the market.

Some years before that, Innostat had a huge competitive advantage that only this company provided some products. But they haven’t developed new products. As a result, the company lost this competitive advantage. After a string of new offering in the 1990s, which delivered annual growth in revenue and profits of more than 15% a year, Innostat had not launched any major new products for the past four years, yet they were essential for profitable growth. In this difficult moment Stephanie Fortas became a new CEO of Innostat.

He has excellent education (PhD from Stanford and MBA from MIT Sloan School), experience (chief operating officer at Phasar, a medical technology company) and what is more important –she has good combination of technological skills and business savvy. She definitely understand that company needs changes and it worked before, it won’t work in future. Frank mentioned some problems and they are main problems for the company in this situation. Mostly Stephanie focus on them: 1) People are not thinking beyond their immediate functional departments.

They are focused only on making their numbers within their own units, so they don’t have so much reason to respond to product development initiatives from R&D. 2) Employees don’t believe R&D estimates of market potential. So they don’t understand why invest time and money on a promise they don’t believe. 3) Motivation is also problem, because the company needs more powerful incentives to get people thinking out of the box. Actually these are very logical problems for the company of charismatic leaders. They decide everything.

So there aren’t choices for employees to be independent, develop own projects and so on. Everything under control of good leaders, who only one person in the company knows how to develop a company. So now the main question for Stephanie is to reorganize company or not. I believe that yes. The company needs new products and impacts for development. Stephanie is good candidate for leading changes because her unique combination of marketing and technical skills. How does she see these changes? While she reading report, we understand it.

Management practices needs to be changed. Decision rights for new product development were to be taken out of R&D and given to cross-functional new product development teams headed by senior marketing people. The teams would be responsible for seeing the development from its early stages through to introduction of the product. The teams have to be interdisciplinary: bench scientists from R&D, a relatively senior manufacturing engineer, along with the manager of the plant making the product and someone from sales.

Also this report provided idea to create strategic marketing department. I’m not sure about the name of this department, but I guess we can call it simply strategic group. This group is needed for some reasons: 1) Stephanie can make mistake, which will negatively influence company’s future; 2) She doesn’t has clear and sequence plan and strategy; 3) She doesn’t has moral authority and respect in the company as a previous CEO. So it would be better to have support group. She has to be part of this group, but, probably, miss some meeting for helping creation of this group.

The main purpose of this group is identifying opportunities. 4) She can share risks with members of this group. There is one problem of this decision – who will be involved in this group? We have a few people: 1) Jim Pappas, director of sales and marketing. He mostly saleperson and marketing is a weak part of the company. Probably, we need change him from head of marketing position, but he has to be involved in this group. He understands what’s going on in market and as salesman he knows customer’s needs.

Anyway it would be a conflict, because Jim wouldn’t give up, but it’s essential decision, because he isn’t looking for new opportunities, but he is experienced. 2) Frank Timoshotsky is also possible member of this team. He is responsible for quality and I don’t see his bad impact on the company. He could be useful for strategic group. He is valuable person. But anyway this group will need new people, who can bring new ideas and new impacts. As I understand, Stephanie want not only new products, she want new culture in the company.

It’s much more difficult goal. I believe it would be better to organize some small interdisciplinary groups for development new products. They can be a good example of success inside company. Of course, it’s a huge risk, because nobody can guarantee success. On the other hand, it can bring excellent motivation to other employees. I believe it’s the best solution. The measurement o ? success in this case isn’t difficult – is there new product or not? What’s the market share of Innostat? What’s an annual profit?

In a world in which abortion is considered either a woman's right or a sin against God, the poem "The Mother" by Gwendolyn Brooks gives a voice to a mother lamenting her aborted children through three stanzas in which a warning is given to mothers, an admission of guilt is made, and an apology to the dead is given. The poet-speaker, the mother, as part of her memory addresses the children that she "got that [she] did not get" (Brooks 206). The shift in voice from stanza to stanza allows Brooks to capture the grief associated with an abortion by not condemning her actions, nor excusing them; she merely grieves for what might have been.

The narrator's longing and regret over the children she will never have is highlighted by the change in tone throughout. You can feel the remorse she is going through when reading the poem. She is regretful, yet explains that she had no other choice. It is a heartfelt poem where she talks about how she will not be able to do certain things for the children that she aborted. This poem may be a reflection of what many other women are dealing with. The first stanza starts off with "Abortions will not let you forget"(Brooks 206), which sounds like the woman is talking in general terms.

She is talking about how future experiences will never take place. Things like "You will never wind up the sucking-thumb or scuttle off the ghosts that come"(206), are some of the many that will not be done. In a way, the women being told this are reminded of the pain they are going through. ” Many suffer from PAS(Post Abortion Syndrome) a term that has been used to describe the emotional and psychological consequences of abortion. Whenever we go through a traumatic experience, without the opportunity to process the experience emotionally, we can expect a delayed negative reaction.

We live in a society that ignores the painful consequences of abortion. Men and women who have experienced it are urged into denial, so they do not talk about and process the normal feelings of anxiety, fear, shame, guilt and grief which often follow the abortion. When such emotions are denied and buried, they will often resurface having been magnified by time” (post abortion). In the second stanza, the woman is talking about her pain and loss. In “I have heard in the voices of the wind the voices of my dim killed children”(Brooks 207), she is haunted by her own children’s faint cries that she hears in her mind.

She then makes the transition from telling the reader to explaining to her children why she did what she did. It feels as though she can’t control her emotions and finally breaks down. She forgets about the reader and focuses on her children. She is asking for some understanding when she says, “Believe that in my deliberateness I was not deliberate. . . . Though why should I whine,” she asks, “Whine that the crime was other than mine”(207). She feels that she did what she had to do. As one woman said: “We were convinced that the abortion was the best thing rather than the right thing. (Reardon 122). She probably couldn’t handle having kids at the time because of her situation, whatever it was, so she had an abortion. She probably didn’t think it was a crime, but society has made her believe it is and she feels guilty. She tries to brush it off when she says, "Since you are dead," but then admonishes herself by euphemizing the meaning by saying, "or rather, or instead, you were never made"(207). In the third stanza, she picks up where she left in the second stanza, but this time she tries to figure out what she did.

She doesn't know what to label what she had done or is probably afraid to label it. She says blankly "You were born, you had body, you died"(Brooks 207). She tries to make excuses for what she did, but her emotions conquer her denial. "Believe me, I knew you, though faintly, and I loved, I loved you All"(207). She knew her children because they were a part of her being that they were in her body. She emphasizes that she loved them to let them (and herself) know that she really loved them although she did what she had to do.

At this point she starts “rationalization these are reasons a woman gives for having an abortion that explain what she is doing or did is good”(post abortion). After reading the poem there is a better understanding that the woman is having quilt, anger, and anxiety. You began to see the broken relationship between her and her unborn children. “A person who has experienced a highly painful loss will sometimes develop an instinct to avoid future situations that might lead them into serious pain which is termed psychological numbing” (post abortion).

One woman states that, “I do not wish to say much, but that was the worst decision I have ever made. I prayed and asked the Lord to forgive me. It hurts all the time to know that I murdered my first born. I was 3 months pregnant at the time. I often wonder what it was and what it could have been. I often wish I could take my own life to be with it. It hurts me so bad”(Reardon 124). The best way to treat depression which is what most of these women have is through cognitive therapy. “Cognitive therapy was developed by Aaron Beck, a form of therapy based on a collaborative effort between clients and therapists that Whitehurst 4 elps clients recognize and correct distorted patterns of thinking believed to underline their emotional problems (Essentials of Psychology 434). Work Cited Brooks, Gwendolyn. “The Mother. ” Literature for Composition. Ed. Sylvan Barnet,William Burto, and William E. Cain. 9th ed. New York: Longman, 2010. 96-97. Print. Nevid, Jeffrey S. ” Essentials of Psychology”. 2nd ed. Ohio, 2009. Print. "Post-Abortion Problems: Post-Abortion Syndrome. " Leadership University. Web. 21 July 2011. Reardon, David C. “Aborted Women: Silent No More”. Chicago: Loyola UP, 1987. Print.

Do you think that James Dyson can repeat the international vacuum cleaner success with the hand dryer market with its Dyson Airblade? Why? Why not? It is highly unlikely that James Dyson will repeat the international vacuum cleaner success with the Dyson Airblade hand-dryer. The main reason is that a vacuum cleaner is a domestic product and the majority of households cater for one. The Dyson Airblade is a device found mainly in public washrooms. It would be too expensive for a household to install a Dyson Airblade as cheaper means exist. However there are approximately 19. million toilets outside private homes and therefore we feel that the Airblade can still be hugely successful and gain a substantial share of the market. The main customers for the Airblade are hotels, restaurants, big enterprises, institutions and airports. When Dyson’s vacuum cleaner was introduced to the market there was no other bag less vacuum cleaners. It was a unique product with a huge demand. However with the introduction of the Airblade, it has had to with stand more sterner competition with products very similar already in the market.

I will discuss why I feel James Dyson cannot repeat the same international vacuum success with the Airblade; however I will note the reasons why I believe the Airblade can still prove a success. The Dyson Vacuum cleaner was introduced into the market at a time when vacuum cleaners performed poorly and users were frequently frustrated with poor suction. Dyson came up with the solution and developed the Root 8 Cyclone, which removes more dust by using eight cyclones. His vacuum cleaner could separate dust by cyclonic action and spin it out of the airstream which eliminated the need for both bag and filter.

There was a huge market for this new invention worldwide. His breakthrough into the UK market came in an advertising campaign when he stated that, unlike most of his rivals, his new vacuum cleaner did not require the continuing purchase of replacement bags. He used the slogan of ‘say goodbye to the bag’ and this proved more attractive to the public than a previous emphasis on the suction efficiency that its technology delivers. There was a huge demand for his bag less vacuum cleaner and in 2008 alone the company’s sales reached ? 00 million with almost all sales coming from vacuum cleaners. The number of households which are predominately carpeted that own a vacuum is very high. In 2008 approximately 95 per cent of households owned vacuum cleaners in Belgium, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United States and the United Kingdom. It is an extremely popular appliance and one which households would find very difficult to do without. We believe that the Airblade will be internationally successful for the following number of reasons but not on the same scale as the Dyson vacuum cleaner.

The Airblade is simply the fastest and most hygienic hand-dryer. It dries hands in 12 seconds, is more cost-effective for energy usage than traditional hot air blower hand dryers and is more environmentally friendly. The product was reviewed by Australian food technologists in accordance with hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) Australia’s Food Safety Certification Programme, with their approval to see the first entry of a hand dryer into food handling areas in. 99. 9 per cent of bacteria are removed from the air used to try your hands.

It’s better for the environment than paper towels. Paper towels are expensive and bad for the environment. Using one Dyson Airblade hand dryer for 1 year saves 146,000 paper towels from being produced, used and disposed of. There is immediate savings and it can help reduce an organisations carbon footprint. The Airblade received numerous global awards after its launch. It was the winner of the Best Workplace Product Innovation, the society of food and hygiene awarded it the best new product and it won the energy efficient product B2B award.

It is also most importantly the only hand dryer compliant with the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) protocol P335 for hygienic hand dryers. However the main reason why we feel that it will not be as successful internationally as the vacuum cleaner is the fact that there is stronger competition. The Airblade is similar to the Mitsubishi Jet Towel, which uses a similar design and technology. The Jet towel has been up and running since 1997. Another UK company, Excel Dryer Ltd, have released a similar machine called Xlerator and it claims to be 98 per cent cheaper than paper towels, and more economically friendly.

These particular machines are being used in Tesco and Asda. An American company, American Dryer has manufactured a high-speed dryer named eXtremeAir costing US$390 with a 10 second drying time. In New Zealand Eco Global, markets their product the ‘ecodrier’ which cleans hands in less than 10 seconds with four separate filter systems. World Dryer have developed two high-speed hand dryers called ‘Airforce’ which claims to use 80 per cent less power than a conventional dryer and dry your hands fast and ‘Airmax’ which claims it is the quickest hand dryer in its class.

We have no doubt that with the brand name ‘Dyson’ and the high regard it is held will ensure the Airblade success. However we feel that the competition that exists in the hand dryer market is so intense the Airblade which costs ? 1,000 exclusive of installation and sales tax will not be able to enjoy the same success that the vacuum cleaner experienced internationally. -------------------------------------------- [ 2 ]. http://www. usatoday. com/money/industries/manufacturing/2007-06-17-dyson-usat_N. tm [ 3 ]. Hollensen. Svend, Global Marketing A Decision-oriented Approach (Pearson Education Limited, 2011) P. 647. [ 4 ]. Hollensen. Svend, Global Marketing A Decision-oriented Approach (Pearson Education Limited, 2011) P. 641. [ 5 ]. http://dysonpricechecker. com/ [ 6 ]. Hollensen. Svend, Global Marketing A Decision-oriented Approach (Pearson Education Limited, 2011) P. 642 [ 7 ]. Hollensen. Svend, Global Marketing A Decision-oriented Approach (Pearson Education Limited, 2011) P. 642 [ 8 ]. ttp://www. dyson. com/technology/airblade. asp [ 9 ]. http://au. ibtimes. com/articles/20090812/dyson-airblade-hand-dryer-gets-haccp-green-light-into-food-industry. htm [ 10 ]. http://www. ausfoodnews. com. au/2009/08/13/dyson-airblade-hand-dryer-gets-haccp-green-light-into-food-industry. html [ 11 ]. http://www. ecobuy. org. au/uploads/documents/Dyson%20Airblade%20Feb%2009. pdf [ 12 ]. Hollensen. Svend, Global Marketing A Decision-oriented Approach (Pearson Education Limited, 2011) P. 647

People are being taught that everyone is different. Each person is given their own personality. Generally speaking, there are two kinds of people in the society: one is introverted people, another one is extroverted people. They usually act in the totally different ways. If you like a big gathering of people and be talkative in a group, definitely you are an extrovert. On the other hand, introverts are more likely to be at home reading and enjoying quiet time and getting their energy from being alone.

One obvious difference is the way of thinking. Introverted people enjoy the internal world of thoughts, feelings and fantasies. They can’t help to hide their opinions and thoughts as well as avoiding show themselves in some public places. In addition, introverts enjoy working on jobs that require a lot of thinking and that take a long period of time to complete. They think everything through process rather than making quick judgments about something. Unlike the introverted people, extroverted ones prefer to think in a bold way.

They like the external fields of things, people and activities. They like a variety in their work with lots of change and actions. Also, the kinds of people have more movement in brain areas. For instance, they are capable to express the thoughts immediately in front of audiences, thinking about bunch of exciting ideas and taking risks on some unfamiliar fields. The other reason of difference is sociable skill. Extroverted people tend to enjoy human interactions and act in a more talkative, enthusiastic, assertive way than the introverts.

They take pleasure in activities that involve large social gatherings, such as: parties, public demonstrations, community activities, and business events. Obviously they are the “social butterflies” of our society. They are the ones who are thriving on join into the group, spending time with friends or strangers and feel uncomfortable to stay alone. Also, they enjoy risk-taking and often show leadership abilities. In contrast, introverted person tend to be bashful and relatively less engaged in social situations. Introverts even have trouble remembering names of faces of people they have met.

They prefer to stay quietly rather than join the group of talkative ones. Introverted people are better communicators through writing and other non-verbal techniques. They get energy from themselves: their ideas, emotions and impressions. They find it easier to communicate with other ones through reading and observing rather than experiencing it. Even thought these two kinds of people have those differences, they also share some similarities. Both Extroverts and introverts have the similar job opportunities. The employers will hire a person no matter his personality is bold or bashful.

Moreover, majority of extroverted person get the positive attitude about life, job and marriage, just as introverted person can. Whenever they meet a challenge or problem, they are able to get courage and confidence to overcome it. In a word, our society involves many different types of individuals. To put it briefly, there are two kinds of people around us: introverts and extroverts. If everyone had the same personality type, the world would indeed be a boring place to live. However, introverted people and extroverted people can live in harmony and make a balance from each other.

"... Until justice rolls down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream. " These powerful words were uttered by Martin Luther King in the midst of the racial unrest in the 1960's. During this time period many people of the black race were affected with discrimination of all sorts. Now- a -days, crimes once driven solely by hatred for one's race now stem from opposition to one's religion, gender, disability, or sexual orientation. These crimes known as "hate crimes" can be prevented. Solving this problem is not impossible, but something that can unite us as a country.

The dictionary defines a hate crime as "any of various crimes... when motivated by hostility to the victim as a member of a group (as one based on color, creed, gender, or sexual orientation). " It can be difficult to distinguish a hate crime from other crimes. Usually, a hate crime is detected by a background investigation of the accused person or eyewitness reports of the crime. In some cases, circumstantial evidence shows the intent of the accused. White supremacy is a current issue in society today. It takes place throughout the world and is a very serious thing.

There are a lot of people who have revolted against these White Power groups. While trying to overthrow or suppress the White Power groups, people may have been beaten or killed in some cases. There are a lot of these groups out there now with thousands of followers. Some White Power groups are only in special areas. Some of these groups are non-violent and try to fight the government for their demands. One of these non-violent groups is W. A. R. White Aryan Resistance. W. A. R. is a group in Arkansas fighting the government for an all white city. Awaken White Americans or our race, heritage, history, and the future of our white children will be forever lost. ”(www. airnet. net/niterider) This message was written from a Klansman Anarchist unnamed in the W. A. R. group. This quote is trying to recruit new members and tell people about their organization. The statement also proves that in a suppressive government people proceed with aggression towards others easily in a society that tries to preach peace, love, and harmony. The other three big white Power Groups are the Nazi’s, Klu Klux Klan or KKK, and Skinheads.

Nazism originated under Hitler’s rule in Germany they are striving to achieve the Arian race that is against everyone except white Protestants. The KKK are a they are against all blacks and Mexicans. The skinhead groups always vary; most skinheads are mainly against the government, blacks, and Mexicans. Nazi’s are the biggest hate groups in the whole world. They mainly still live in Germany and still persecute the Jewish people and any people who try to suppress them. The Nazi’s are the most dangerous group to oppose; they have about two million followers in their organization.

They also have great numbers of people in the United States. In Germany there are still some stores the Nazi’s will not let Jewish people in. The Klu Klux Klan is the biggest hate group in America. The KKK is mainly a group of people dislike gays and blacks. The Klansman are constantly trying to find recruits they even have their own marches. The big KKK is mainly in the southern states. The KKK has started a religion and it is growing rapidly. The religion is called A. I. E. “The A. I. E. hates all Gays, other religions, blacks/Mexicans, and race mixing so join today”.

This is a slogan that is used by the church and the Imperial Wizard Ricky Draper. The second biggest White power group in America is the skinheads. Skinheads are the craziest White Power group out there. Most skinheads are psychotic punks or anarchist that have no beliefs and hate everyone that believes in god and listens to the government. Skinhead groups today are rising in extreme numbers with the teen population. Skinhead Punks/Anarchists always want to rebel against the government and they don’t listen to rules. Work Cited "News and Views. " The Insurgent. N. p. , n. d. Web. 26 July 2011.

Animal Abuse and Youth Violence: By: Jennifer O’Connor May, 28, 2011? Abstract: Although legal definitions of animal abuse vary, it is a crime in every State, and many States have enacted laws establishing certain forms of cruelty to animals as felony offenses. The forms of abuse to which animals may be subjected are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, including physical abuse, serious neglect, and even psychological abuse.

It has been said that violence begets violence, but what do we know about the nature of the relationship between the abuse of animals and aggressive behavior towards human beings? This paper describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is focused on the prevalence of cruelty to animals by children and adolescents and to the role of animal abuse as a possible symptom of conduct disorder. In addition, the motivations and etiology underlying the maltreatment of animals are thoroughly reviewed.

The abuse of sentient creatures demands our attention. The research includes recommendations to curb such cruelty, while providing information for additional resources concerned with violence perpetrated against animals and people. It is my hope that the information that this paper offers will contribute to reducing both forms of violence. Introduction: The past two decades have witnessed a resurgence of interest in the relation between cruelty to animals, or animal abuse, and serious violent behavior, especially among youthful offenders.

As an illustration, a recent study by Verlinden (2000) of 9 school shootings in the United States (from Moses Lake, WA, in 1996 to Conyers, GA, in 1999) reported that 5 (45 percent) of the 11 perpetrators had histories of alleged animal abuse. The well-documented example was the case of Luke Woodham who, in the April before his October 1997 murder of his mother and two schoolmates, tortured and killed his own pet dog (Ascione, 1999). It is argued here that animal abuse has received insufficient attention—in fact, is sometimes explicitly excluded (e. . , Stone and Kelner, 2000)—as one of a number of “red flags,” warning signs, or sentinel behaviors that could help identify youth at risk for perpetrating interpersonal violence (a relation first noted in the psychiatric literature by Pinel in 1809) and youth who have themselves been victimized. Defining Animal Abuse: All 50 States have legislation relating to animal abuse. Most States categorize it as a misdemeanor offense, and 30 States also have instituted felony-level statutes for certain forms of cruelty to animals.

However, legal definitions of animal abuse, and even the types of animals that are covered by these statutes, differ from State to State (Ascione and Lockwood, 2001). The research literature also fails to yield a consistent definition of animal abuse or cruelty to animals; however, the following definition captures features common to most attempts to define this behavior: “socially unacceptable behavior that intentionally causes unnecessary pain, suffering, or distress to and/or death of an animal” (Ascione, 1993). This definition excludes practices that may cause harm to animals yet are socially condoned (e. . , legal hunting, certain agricultural and veterinary practices). Because the status of a particular animal may vary from one culture to another, the definition takes into account the social contexts that help determine what is considered animal abuse. For the purposes of this review, the animals that are victims of abuse are most often vertebrates because this is the category of animals to which are attributed the greatest capacity for experiencing and displaying pain and distress. The forms of abuse to which animals may be subjected are parallel to the forms of child maltreatment.

Animals may be physically or sexually abused, may be seriously neglected, and, some might argue, may be psychologically abused. Prevalence of Cruelty to Animals by Children and Adolescents: Because cruelty to animals is not monitored systematically in national crime reporting systems, researchers must rely on data from studies in developmental psychology and psychopathology to estimate the prevalence of this problem behavior in samples of youth. A number of assessment instruments that address child behavior problems include a question about cruelty to animals.

However, “cruelty” is not always explicitly defined for the respondent, so it is difficult to determine the exact behaviors that are being reported. Using the Achenbach-Conners-Quay Behavior Checklist (ACQ), Achenbach and colleagues (1991) collected parent or guardian reports of problem behaviors for 2,600 boys and girls ages 4 to 16 who had been referred to mental health clinics and a control group of 2,600 boys and girls of the same age. The no referred children constituted a representative sample of the U. S. opulation, based on ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and place of residence. These children had been screened for the absence of mental health referrals in the past year. The referred children were drawn from 18 mental health clinics across the United States. Potential candidates for inclusion in the non-referred and referred groups were excluded if they were mentally retarded, had a serious physical illness, or had a handicap. One item on the ACQ asks the respondent whether their child or adolescent has been “cruel to animals” in the past 2 months.

Respondents can answer using the following 4-point scale: 0 = never or not at all true (as far as you know), 1 = once in a while or just a little, 2 = quite often or quite a lot or 3 = very often or very much. In their statistical analysis of individual ACQ items, Achenbach and colleagues noted that cruelty to animals was significantly higher for referred youth, boys, and younger children. There was a relatively low frequency of cruelty to animals in the non-referred sample (0–13 percent) in comparison with the referred sample (7–34 percent).

Eighteen to twenty-five percent of referred boys between the ages of 6 and 16 were reported to have been cruel to animals, and the data suggest this item’s incidence has greater stability through childhood and adolescence for boys than for girls. Data on the prevalence of cruelty to animals are also provided in the manuals for the Child Behavior Checklist (CBC), perhaps one of the most widely used checklists for child behavior problems, which is available in separate versions for 2- to 3- year-olds (Achenbach, 1992) and 4- to 18- year-olds (Achenbach, 1991).

The cruelty Youth to animals item on the CBC (which uses a “past 2 months” timeframe for 2- to 3-yearolds and a “past 6 months” timeframe for 4- to 18-year-olds) is scored on a 3-point scale: 0 = not true (as far as you know), 1 = somewhat or sometimes true, or 2 = very true or often true. Referred and non-referred boys and girls can be compared for each of three age groups. Data on acts of vandalism committed by the two older age groups are included for comparison.

Again, cruelty to animals is more often reported for younger children and boys, especially those referred for mental health services. Research also suggests that reported rates of cruelty to animals (for youth ages 4 and older) are higher than or similar to reported rates of vandalism, a problem behavior about which more systematic juvenile crime data are available. Limitations of Adult Reports on Children’s Cruelty to Animals: Both the ACQ and CBC rely on caretakers’ reports, and comparable information from youth’s self-reports of cruelty to animals is not available.

The reliance on caretakers’ reports, however, could be problematic because animal abuse may be performed covertly (a characteristic shared with youth vandalism and fire setting) and caretakers may be unaware of the presence of this behavior in their children. Offord, Boyle, and Racine (1991) surveyed a nonclinical sample of 1,232 Canadian parents/guardians and their 12- to 16- year-old boys and girls. They asked respondents (both parents/guardians and adolescents) to report on a number of CD symptoms, based on a 3-point scale identical to the one used with the CBC.

This data suggests that parents and guardians may seriously underestimate cruelty to animals, with boys self reporting this behavior at 3. 8 times the rate of parents/guardians and the girls at 7. 6 times the parent/guardian rate. Similar underestimates appear for two other CD symptoms, vandalism and fire setting, that may often be covert and, therefore, unknown to or undetected by parents or guardians. Animal Abuse and Violent Offending:

Animal abuse and interpersonal violence toward humans share common characteristics: both types of victims are living creatures, have a capacity for experiencing pain and distress, can display physical signs of their pain and distress (with which humans could empathize), and may die as a result of inflicted injuries. Given these commonalities, it is not surprising that early research in this area, much of it using retrospective assessment, examined percent of the former group reported cruelty to animals compared with 0 percent of the latter.

Miller and Knutson (1997) examined self reports of animal abuse by 299 inmates incarcerated for various felony offenses and 308 introductory psychology class undergraduates. The percentages of inmates and undergraduates, respectively, reporting the following types of animal abuse was as follows: “Hurt an animal? ” 16. 4 percent and 9. 7 percent, “Killed a stray? ” 32. 8 percent and 14. 3 percent, and “Killed a pet? ” 12 percent and 3. 2 percent. More recently, Schiff, Louw, and Ascione (1999) surveyed 117 men incarcerated in a South African prison about their childhood animal abuse.

Of the 58 men who had committed crimes of aggression, 63. 3 percent admitted to cruelty to animals; of the 59 nonaggressive inmates, the percentage was 10. 5 percent. In a study of 28 convicted, incarcerated sexual homicide perpetrators (all men), Ressler, Burgess, and Douglas (1988) assessed the men’s self-reports of cruelty to animals in childhood and adolescence. Childhood animal abuse was reported by 36 percent of the perpetrators, and 46 percent admitted to abusing animals as adolescents. Thirty-six percent of these men said they had also abused animals in adulthood.

In a study by Tingle et al. (1986) of 64 convicted male sex offenders, animal abuse in childhood or adolescence was reported by 48 percent of the rapists and 30 percent of the child molesters. Taken together, these studies suggest that animal abuse may be characteristic of the developmental histories of between one in four and nearly two in three violent adult offenders. Motivations That May Underlie Animal Abuse by Children and Adolescents: Whenever high-profile cases of animal abuse are reported in the media, a common public reaction is to ask: “Why would someone do that? Burying puppies alive, shooting wild mustangs, setting a dog on fire, beating a petting zoo donkey—these and countless other examples offend the public by their seemingly senseless cruelty. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, Kellert and Felthous (1985: 1122–1124) interviewed abusers and discovered a number of motivations that may characterize adult cruelty to animals, some of which may also be applicable to animal abuse perpetrated by juveniles: • To control an animal (i. e. , animal abuse as discipline or “training”). •To retaliate against an animal. To satisfy a prejudice against a species or breed (e. g. , hatred of cats). • To express aggression through an animal (i. e. , training an animal to attack, using inflicted pain to create a “mean” dog). •To enhance one’s own aggressiveness (e. g. , using an animal victim for target practice). •To shock people for amusement. •To retaliate against other people (by hurting their pets or abusing animals in their presence). •To displace hostility from a person to an animal (i. e. , attacking a vulnerable animal when assaulting the real human target is judged too risky). To experience nonspecific sadism (i. e. ,enjoying the suffering experienced by the animal victim, in and of itself). Child and adolescent motivations for animal abuse have not been studied as extensively. However, case reports and a youth interview study (using the Cruelty to Animals Assessment Instrument) conducted by Ascione, Thompson, and Black (1997) suggest a number of developmentally related motivations: •Curiosity or exploration (i. e. , the animal is injured or killed in the process of being examined, usually by a young or developmentally delayed child). Peer pressure (e. g. , peers may encourage animal abuse or require it as part of an initiation rite). •Mood enhancement (e. g. , animal abuse is used to relieve boredom or depression). •Sexual gratification (i. e. , bestiality). •Forced abuse (i. e. , the child is coerced into animal abuse by a more powerful individual). •Attachment to an animal (e. g. , the child kills an animal to prevent its torture by another individual). •Animal phobias (that cause a preemptive attack on a feared animal). • Identification with the child’s abuser (e. g. a victimized child may try to regain a sense of power by victimizing a more vulnerable animal). •Posttraumatic play (i. e. , reenacting violent episodes with an animal victim). •Imitation (i. e. , copying a parent’s or other adult’s abusive “discipline” of animals). •Self-injury (i. e. , using an animal to inflict injuries on the child’s own body). • Rehearsal for interpersonal violence (i. e. , “practicing” violence on stray animals or pets before engaging in violent acts against other people). • Vehicle for emotional abuse (e. g. , injuring a sibling’s pet to frighten the sibling).

CD assessments are not usually designed to discover the underlying reasons for a child’s or adolescent’s cruelty to animals, but as with juvenile firesetting (discussed below), understanding motivations may be critical for designing effective intervention strategies. A recent review by Agnew (1998) provides a more extensive treatment of the social-psychological causes of animal abuse. As noted by Ascione and Lockwood (2001), one model that could be used to develop an animal abuse assessment instrument is the approach that has been taken to assess juvenile fire setting.

Firesetting shares many features with animal abuse: both are CD symptoms, may reflect developmental changes, may share etiological factors, may often be performed covertly, and may be early sentinels for later psychological problems. Some children may manifest both problem behaviors. Wooden and Berkey (1984) noted the co-occurrence of cruelty to animals in a sample of 69 fire setters ages 4–17: cruelty to animals was reported for 46 percent of 4- to 8-year-olds, 9 percent of 9- to 12-year-olds, and 12 percent of 13- to 17-year-olds.

The authors caution that the lower rates for older children and adolescents may be related to the covert nature of this behavior, as children experience greater independence and venture farther from home for more prolonged periods. Sakheim and Osborne (1994) reported similar results with samples of children who set fires and those who did not . Fifty percent of the fire setters’ parents reported that their children had been cruel “to children or animals,” but only 9 percent of parents of the children who did not set fires reported the same (p

Bad Effects Of Internet While the Internet opens a world of possibilities for young generation, expanding their horizons and exposing them to different cultures and ways of life, they can be exposed to many dangers as they hit the road exploring the information highway. Negative effects of internet such as internet addiction, explicit contents and plagiarism are not unusual in today’s culture, if not used properly, the Internet may be severely damaging to the mental and physical health of children and young adults.

One of the most obvious problems with young generation using the internet is the chance of getting addicted. Children and young adolescents that have grown up using computers will naturally be more susceptible to getting hooked on the internet. This computer overuse results in less time for them to study, do homework, read, exercise, or participate in any co curriculum activities.

As a result, internet addiction directly affected their day to day’s lifestyle and characteristic whom some are suppose to be inside the classroom yet they are wasting time surfing the Internet, watching pornography, playing online games in cyber cafe. The proof can be seen from the exponential increase from cyber cafes. As a matter of fact, young generation are spending more time in front of the monitor surfing internet than they are getting their daily exercise, consequently, many medical problems such as obesity, eye health and postural problems occur and affect the children’s health and social life.

Such a pattern will eventually affect their grades, health, and social life. Moreover, Internet addiction disrupts teenagers’ relationships with family and friends and tends to replace education and other positive activities. According to Dr. Kimberly S. Young of the University of Pittsburgh at Bradford, she found that serious relationship problems were reported by 53% of young adolescents surveyed, while parent-child relationships and close friendships have been noted to be seriously...

Introduction It has been said that Hewlett Packard (HP) has been ahead of its peers in giving back to the community, showing concern for work/life balance, and acting to preserve the environment long before it was the “in” thing. Currently, HP is the largest technology company in the world, shipping 3. 5 products per second. What supply chain models will help us grow faster? From the development of SPaM, HP realized other areas within their supply chain that needed improvement.

With the possibilities of suppliers being late with their shipments, or the incoming materials being flawed, production process breaking down, etc. It is imperative that HP created a team to deal with these supply chain problems before they became a reality within its organization. Some of the strengths of the supply chain used by HP was in using WINO, HP found that demand uncertainties impacted inventory greatly, which prompted them to consider redesigning products and processes to lessen the impact of demand uncertainties on its supply chain performance.

Also the analysis was effective in identifying opportunities for operational improvements. Because of the systems used it created a high payoff in the forecasting processes, the realignment of the manufacturing and distributing strategies and redesigning of the product and processes. How do we match our channel structure to customer requirements? The fact that HP are working with its dealers is a major step in the continued success of HP and is key in determining what customers want. They have worked very close to improve the performance of the overall supply chain.

HP should continue to utilize SPaM’s supply chain modeling. They have increased customer satisfaction, production innovation and differentiation. Based on the number of projects HP had, it revealed that demand uncertainty resulted from forecast errors and was the key source of inefficiency in the supply chain. With HP expanding into distributing channels and including supplies both upstream and downstream, their sales force and dealers has led to a win-win situation for HP, its dealers, suppliers and customers (Lee, H. L. , & Billington, C. 1995).

What supply chain structures would help us reduce costs further at the same time offer greater product variety to our customers. WINO (now SCAT) is still a structure that HP should utilize in reducing costs. According to Lee, H. L & Billington, C. (1995), HP extended WINO to quantify how much inventory could be reduced at two locations, while maintaining the same service target for customers and the results were successful. Incorporating their supply chain with E-commerce is what will reduce costs further and increase customer strength. Customers want right now products.

HP going forward Going forward Hp has recognized to further reduce cost, increase consumer strength, manage demand and increase profits, developing an internet store is the next thing to do. HP has sold the majority of its consumer products through traditional retail channels and to address its customers’ growing desire to order products via the Internet HP listened. The strategy was to find a logistics service company that would help them strategize and quickly implement the new Internet sales channel with minimal resource utilization and risk. HPshopping. om asked FedEx to develop a comprehensive solution that would manage the entire process from order management to order fulfillment. “Once the order is authorized, it is accepted by HP, confirmed, and routed to the fulfillment center by FedEx. FedEx also contracted a call center provider to manage the services required to support HP customers that prefer purchasing products via a toll-free number. To complete this component of the solution, FedEx and the call center collaborated on information technologies that would support the necessary integration of the order and inventory management systems” (Woraphan Atikomtrirat, 2011).

This process seems to be very efficient and doing well as HP was ranked number #1 in business with online retailing. The key is keeping customers happy and willing to change the supply chain as demand changes. References Lee, H. L. , & Billington, C. (1995). The Evolution of Supply-Chain-Management Models and Practice at Hewlett-Packard. Interfaces, 25(5), 42-63. Retrieved from EBSCOhost Woraphan Atikomtrirat. (2011). HP Supply Chain. Retrieved from http://www. slideshare. net/tung148/hp-supply-chain

Business Ethics – Assignment 1 1. The Sales Rep. A sales representative for a struggling computer supply firm has a chance to close a multimillion-dollar deal for an office system to be installed over a two-year period. The machines for the first delivery are in the company’s warehouse, but the remainder would have to be ordered from the manufacturer. Because the manufacturer is having difficulty meeting the heavy demand for the popular model, the sales representative is not sure that the subsequent deliveries can be made on time.

Any delay in converting to the new system would be costly to the customer; however, the blame could be placed on the manufacturer. Should the sales representative close the deal without advising the customer about the problem? - As a sales representative working for a firm, the success or failure of a deal is partly due to the sale representative. Though it is his/her job to make sure that they agree to more deals, at the same time the clients have to be well informed of every detail of the deal. It is ethical to inform the client properly and not to leave any piece of information out – the truth is better than a false claim.

However, this might cause the sales representative to lose the deal, in which the company would in turn suffer as well. However, if he/she didn’t inform the client, the deal would have probably taken place. The chances of a delay are relatively high considering it says above that the manufacturer has trouble meeting the heavy demands. After closing the deal, the customer would expect everything to be delivered on time, obviously unaware of the problems with the manufacturer. It would anger the client if there was any delay and the risk of legal actions against the firms would increase.

In my opinion, being ethical and informing the customer is important in more ways than one. It not only creates goodwill towards the company and its representatives, but also helps in creating a long-standing relationship with the customer. He/she must know how to balance short-term profits against long standing gains from ethical behavior. 2. The Research Director. The director of research in a large aerospace firm recently promoted a woman to head an engineering team charged with designing a critic component for the new plane.

She was tapped for the job because of her superior knowledge of the engineering aspects of the project but the men under her direction have been expressing resentment at working for a woman by subtly sabotaging the work of the team. The director believes that it is unfair to deprive the woman of advancement merely because of the prejudice of her male colleagues, but quick completion of the designs and the building of a prototype are vital to the success of the company. Should he remove the woman as head of the engineering team? Above is an example of gender discrimination that commonly happens in the business world. It is widely known that many a times women do not have the same opportunity as men for education and meaningful careers. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) does state that “all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and right”. This therefore brings us to a conclusion that gender discrimination is obviously, unethical. Treating both genders the same way on the other hand is highly ethical.

In the case above, the woman is an expert in engineering and has much to contribute to the project. The men under her have been showing resentment and sabotaging the work will only cause lack of productivity in the project, causing it to be unbeneficial for the entire company. This is an example of male chauvinism where the males feel superior to the females. Here it shows that they feel like they are too good to work under a female, even though she is well informed of her job. In my opinion, the Director here plays a very important part.

As a Director he should be good at handling his staff and not let them get out of control. I personally do not think that he should remove the woman, because he himself believes that prejudice is unfair. He too understands the importance of his job and would hire the right person for it. If its against his beliefs, he should inform the male workers the consequences of any hindrance on the progress. This way, he can ensure that they understand the cost of their biased attitude and straighten them out and it would be disastrous to the company. 3. The Marketing Director.

The vice president of marketing for a major brewing company is aware that college students account for a large population of beer sales and that people in this age group form lifelong loyalties to particular brands of beer. The executive is personally uncomfortable with the tasteless gimmicks used by her competitors in the industry to encourage drinking on campuses, including beach parties and beer-drinking contests. She worries about the company’s contribution to underage drinking and alcohol abuse among college students. Should she go along with the competition? In this case, I do believe that the marketing director should go along with her competition. In the beginning, the main aim of a business is to make a profit. Profit maximization is the main aim of a business. She herself is aware that the youth of the generation are the ones that form loyalties to particular brands of beer. As an MD for a brewing company, her job entails for her to be able to target this youth group and get them hooked unto their beer. The case states that there is a lot of competition. They need to find a unique selling point, which makes them different in selling the same product.

The director herself is uncomfortable with the tricks used to attract their attention. I think she should go along with her competition, because even though there is a drinking age of 18+ or 21+, kids hardly follow these rules anyway. Even though she herself doesn’t believe in encouraging underage drinking, she should be aware that these tricks aren’t solely responsible for the youth of today and their drinking habits. She can advertise her alcohol, with her brand name without graphical descriptions of parties – this way she can compete with her rivals and at the same time incorporate a little bit of what she believes in.

Ethically, it would be wrong to encourage something that is against the law, but in my opinion from the business view, when competition is there the aim is to be on top of it. 4. The CEO. The CEO of a midsize producer of a popular line of kitchen appliances is approached about merging with a larger company. The terms offered by the suitor are very advantageous to the CEO, who would receive a large severance package. The shareholders of the firm would also benefit, because the offer for their stock is substantially above the current market price.

The CEO learns, however, that plans call for closing a plant that is the major employer in a small town. The firm has always taken its social responsibility seriously, but the CEO is now unsure of how to balance the welfare of the employees who would be thrown out of work and the community where the plant is located against the interest off the shareholders. He is not sure how much to take his own interests into account. Should he support a merger that harms the community but benefits the shareholders and himself? - The case above states that CEO of a company is approached about merging with a larger company.

It is beneficial to the CEO of the company, as well as the shareholders of the firm. The main aim of a business is to work hard in order to achieve a goal that is to maximize profits and let the business expand in many ways. It states in the case that it will be very beneficial to both the shareholders and the CEO. The problem reflects on principal-agent framework in which differential objectives can result in organizational problems. This means that every individual has different objectives and want different things and a conflict between these can cause a problem within the organization.

It is also mentioned above that the firm has always been socially responsible and this merger will also harm the firm’s reputation – as employees lose their jobs and homes. To the public eye, they have always seen this firm as being socially conscious but if this merger were to take place then it would seem like a very selfish act, as their employees would be thrown out of work. The compensation pay would not even matter. And the firms reputation would go downhill. Ethically, this would be incorrect. Another reason to consider is the merger itself.

In the short run it may be beneficial to the shareholders and the CEO as well as the company but in the long run there is guarantee that the stock value will be higher considering the fragility of the market environment. Other problems such as cultural differences may also arise. So with this in regard, I believe that the CEO should not agree to this merger. Even the employees are something to think about. He should not just think about his opinion but his employees are the one that also make a difference to the company, and that is why he should not agree to the merger.

Based on what I have learned in PSYC. 101, principals of psychology, the theory I have taken an interest in is functionalism and nature vs. nurture theory. These theories have given me ways to function better and to know the different between nature and nurture. Functionalism is the doctrine that makes something a thought, desire, pain (or any other type of mental state) depends not on its internal constitution, but solely on its function, or the role it plays, in the cognitive system of which it is apart.

More precisely, functionalism theories take the identity of a mental state to be determined by its casual relations to sensory stimulations, other mental states and behavior. The functionalist theory holds that inequality is a benefit to society as a whole because the promise of greater rewards, motivates people to take risks, pursue difficult goals, challenge existing ideas, innovate, and explore. (Ex. How many of you would trust a surgeon who made 30,000 a year to do brain surgery on you? ).

I would apply functionalism to my future career by realizing that regardless of what I have learned in school and on other jobs, I still hav eto adapt to a new environment when starting a new job. Like the saying goes “there are a million ways to skin a cat” I can’t start my future career believing that I know everything, because if I do so it will hold me back from learning anything new. Also, being able to adapt live at work ( the founder of functionalism) will make me a better employee and help me navigate through my career as I am promoted to higher roles in a company.

Functionalism is an early perspective in psychology which was studied by William James. The focus of the study is how the mind allow people to adapt, live, work and play. William James theory of functionalism was heavenly influenced by Charles Darwin ideas of natural selection in which physical traits that helped an animal adapt to its environment and survive were passed to its offspring, thus becoming part of the species traits. William James believed that if physical traits could be passed down, then behavioral traits could as well.

Over many years scholars have debated over the nature vs. nurture theory. Some say that nature has a greater effect on a person and some say nurture is more important for development. This theory which has been around for ages still does not have definitive answer as which is greater, but what many scholars can conclude is that as a whole nature vs. nurture is an important influence on us. Nature refers to heredity. It is what determines our look, personalities, as well as other things because it is in our genetics and is passed down.

Scholars concluded that a newborn are birthed with a set of inherited traits instead of a blank state of personality that many believe. Nature is believed to be what determines our personalities, looks, and other things because it’s all genetically passed down. Any matter concerning traits relies upon the concept of inborn biology. Many American parents believe that any bad trait that their child has obtained is because of bad parenting, but it may be more a matter of biology, and genes that run through the family.

In a way our nature is iur genetic gift, which gives us physical traits such as hair color, eye color, and form of body. It does also determine the kinds of emotions and motivations we will experience, which can be endless. Nurture is the cause of our behavior as well as characteristics, even though genes are what give us that certain spunk to our personality, the environment has the power to alter it and make us into the exact opposite , as some say. Even the way that certain children are brought up can change how they turn out.

Different ethnicities have different expectations of how their child performs in school. We are perfect examples of tomatoes because we all aren’t in bad soil, but some of us have higher expectations and environments, so we turn out differently than others. Asian families have higher expectations of their children when it comes to school work. They are automatically expected to do well and excel academically at everything. This is higher rate of expectations, and their environment with their parents, ultimately may lead to higher success for them in the near future.

As our nature is a type of genetic endowment, nurture is the experience we have during our lifetime. Nature and Nurture are both important influences to a person as they are developing their own traits. Our genes are important because what we have inherited is essentially the basis of what kind of person we are, but the environment can alter and develop a person even more. Functionalism By: Christopher Southerns Instructor: Mrs. Penny Janson Class: PSYC 101 References Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 915 (1912) The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. J. W. Swain, trans. London: Allen & Unwin. 1933 (1893) Division of Labor in Society. G. Simpson, trans. New York: Macmillan. 1951 (1897) Suicide. J. Spaulding and G. Simpson, trans. New York: Free Press. 1935 "On the Concept of Function in Social Science. " American Anthropologist, 37: 394-402. 1952 (1940) "On Social Structure. " Structure and Function in Primitive Society, New York: The Free Press. 1952 Structure and Function in Primitive Society, New York: The Free Press.