A New Work Ethic Abstract In the case done by James Sheehy, he worked undercover in a fast food restaurant that was owned by a relative. Most of the employees were teenagers and college students. He found the employees had contempt for customers, lack of respect for management and unrealistic expectations about what was expected of them. This paper will present my answers to the questions presented in the case 4. 4 “A New Work Ethic”, 1. How typical the attitudes that Sheehy reports appear to be in work environments I have experienced. 2.

Implications for the future of American business. 3. Is it more reasonable to expect workers to be more devoted to their jobs? 4. Why employees steal. 5. Why our culture of our capitalist society encourages attitudes like those Sheehy describes. A New Work Ethic 1. Describe how typical the attitudes that Sheehy reports appear to be in work environments you have experienced. In reading the case study “A New Work Ethic,” I began to notice strong similarities of my own experiences and the work environment explored by the human resource manager James Sheehy.

Based upon my experience, Sheehy’s report that the lack of employee commitment is generationally based are comparable to some of my own experiences but not always the case. I currently work for a corporation in a management position leading a team of off line customer service representatives. The current age range on my team runs from 24 to 66 as the oldest. The job responsibility and work load is the same for everyone on the team. I find the attitude Sheehy describes to be quite common in all age groups. For example the primary responsibility of their job is to process orders submitted by the customer by way of email communication.

Their performance is rated on how many emails they completed per hour. For the representative to receive an acceptable rating for the month they must complete 8-16 transactions per hour. My role as a Supervisor has gone from coaching and developing to monitoring behavior reports looking for how the reps had again found a way to beat the system. One of the most recent examples would be sending the email back to the customer stating they needed additional information when in fact the customer had already provided what they needed.

The outcome is customer impacting, delay in the request being completed, work is pushed off to the next person or as I call it work avoidance. Even a grown adult has a get-away-with-what-you-can attitude with no regards quality and service. And their views of leadership’s decision to set performance targets are unfair and out to get them. A New Work Ethic 2. Explain the implication of the work ethic Sheehy describes for the future of American business. With the way Sheehy implicated the ethics of his employees I have concerns about the future of American businesses.

Companies need devoted dedicated workers who love the job they do. The employees must have self motivation and a want to help with the continued success, growth and profit making of the business. Sheehy describes the work ethic of future American businesses as being populated mainly by college students who will maintain a no-holds-barred, trample-over-anybody, get-what-you-want approach. Sheehy believes that these college students really believe that this approach is a necessary and glamorous road to success.

Sheehy feels that there is a whole generation of workers with alarming new work ethics, such as contempt for customers, indifference to quality and service, unrealistic work expectations, as well as a get-away-with-what-you-can attitude. In the report, the implications of the work ethics Sheehy described could create a dramatic influence on American businesses in the future. If workers continue to behave like the employees in Sheehy’s report the small business owner will eventually no longer exist.

The impact on the small business owner would be loss of customer’s, decrease in profitability eventually the owner could be forced to close their business. In large corporations it could be the same result. The only advantage to a larger corporation in this situation would be the ability to develop self serve options for their customer as to eliminate customer interactions with their employees. In my current job our target for self serve is 90% which means 90% of all order from the customer will be automated and no human will ever touch them. As of today we are 85% we will reach our target on our next system enhancement. A New Work Ethic . Explain whether it is more reasonable to expect workers, especially in a capitalist society, to be more devoted to their jobs, more concerned with quality and customer service, than Sheehy’s coworkers were. Since capitalism would be ideally as an economic system in which the major of production and distribution is in private hands, operating under what is termed “profit” or “market” system. I would not expect workers to be devoted to their job, especially with all the outsourcing of jobs and resources being sent overseas. Personally I feel it is very important and reasonable to expect workers to be more devoted to their jobs.

The United States is in a recession and jobs are far and few between. This gives the business owner a larger selection of candidates to choose from when filling an open job position. I would suggest that people should be more professional, dress to impress every day, be on time, and have good work ethics, great customer service. In my company the days of mass hiring are over we have been given a directive to reduce head count by 13% due to system enhancements, the ability for our customer to utilize self serve options, elimination of duplicated jobs in several location down to 1 central location performing the task for the entire nation.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Grading System is an exercise in professional judgment on thepart of the teachers. It involves the collection and evaluation of evidence on students’ achievement or performance over a specified period of time. Through this process various types of descriptive information and measures of students’ performance are converted into grades that summarize students’ accomplishments. Online Grading System is a web-based application that can be used to create report cards, class grade list and roll sheet attendance report. It post the grades of the students online.

The student have an account to access their report card. Parents can view and be updated on the performance of their children. While teachers work load can be lessen through computing the grades automatically. Nueva Vizcaya State University, Laboratory High School, Bayombong Campus, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, has 380 students and 18 faculties. They are liken to other schools who normally release the students grade list and report cards in a delayed time because they compute it using Microsoft Excel electronic spreadsheet and then manually compute the students grades list to double check.

Thus resulting for the students to waste time and effort in always going back to school just to get their report cards. In some instances, students are not showing nor updating their parents concerning their performance in school. There are times that students are forging the signature of their parents just to assure their teachers that they have showed it to their parents. In the part of the teachers, they are always put more time in computing the grades of the students because they manually compute it then check on the Microsoft Excel electronic spreadsheet to double check.

For the parents they have been depraved in knowing the performance of their children because they need to go to work for living. As technology prevails in this epoch of time. We have in mind to solve the problem stated above. We are proposing a system entitled, Online Grading System of Nueva Vizcaya State University, Laboratory High School, Bayombong Campus, Bayombong Nueva Vizcaya. This project examines the issued related ot the traditional grading system versus the online grading system. The online grading system would create a system of reliable and accurate to compute grades in all different subjects in the

Basic Education Department. A comparatively fast access of the information of grades: generate reports and information of the input of teachers. This will be designed through web-based application with the use of MySQL as database management with the intent to generate reports. It helps the teachers to minimize the time consumed in computing grades of the students using manual method. This helps students to become aware of their grades and also help the parents to get involved in their child’s schooling. Parents and students can work together to help a child succeed.

Through conducting this study we are hoping to help in the problem of schools, parents and students. STATEMENT OF OBJECTIVES General Objectives This study aims to design and to develop an Online Grading System for the Nueva Vizcaya State University, Laboratory High School, Bayombong Campus, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya, that will serve as proposal to help teachers and students to save time and resources through the use of technology. Specific Objectives •To help the school in generating the report cards of the students through online. •To provide to the parents the necessary information and update concerning their children’s performance. To help the teachers update the grade automatically. •To provide to the students the fast access of their report cards through viewing their grades online. SCOPE AND DELIMITATION This study is focused on the students and of Nueva Vizcaya State University, Laboratory High School, Bayombong Campus, Bayomobong, Nueva Vizcaya. It will concentrate on the Online Grading System and the proposed system will include computing, adding, searching, recording, editing, printing and retrieval of students’ grades of the Nueva Vizcaya State University, Laboratory High School.

It is deliminated only to the students parents and faculty of the Nueva Vizcaya State University, Laboratory High School. This study does not cover the other department or branches of the school. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study “ A Proposed Online Grading System of Nueva Vizcaya StateUniversity, Laboratory High School, Bayombong Campus will be beneficial to the following: To the School. This study will give benefits to the school as it helps them to post the grades and update the students concerning the student matters and school activities online. To the Students.

It will help the students to save time and resources in getting their report cards. To the Instructors. This will serve as their guide in updating the grades of their student online. To the Researchers. This study will equip them with knowledge about an Online Grading System and to apply what they have learned in their course. To the Future Researchers. This study will serve as their reference for their research activities and will help them to gain knowledge to express their ideas in their chosen study. Definition of Terms The following are terms that the researcher used for better understanding about the concepts in the study.

Application- also known as an application or an "app", is computer software designed to help the user to perform singular or multiple related specific tasks. Database - is an organized collection of data for one or more purposes, usually in digital form. Electronic Spreadsheet- It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables, and a macro programming language called Visual Basic for Applications. In the study it is where instructors are going to make the grades of the students. Grades – Grades are standardized measurements of varying levels of comprehension within a subject area.

Instructor- the one who facilitates education for an individual student may also be described as a personal tutor. Online- In common usage, "online" often refers to the Internet or the World Wide Web. Report Card –it communicates a student's performance. In most places, the report card is issued by the school to the student or the student's parents twice or four times yearly Technology- is the making, usage and knowledge of tools, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or serve some purpose. Update- update information concerning a specific matter.

Textual form has the ability to differentiate whether or not a text accomplishes an idea the composer is attempting to create. The way in which a composer represents different perspectives throughout texts can have the power to influence and induce their audience to analyse and understand their purpose in a subjective way. Ted Hughe’s famous poems within his anthology ‘Birthday Letters’, Sylvia Plath’s moving poetry relating to Hugh’s, and the contradictory film by Stephen King, ‘The Shawshank Redemption’ are three examples of texts that have conflicting textual form.

Hughe’s articulate and diversely structured poetry regarding Plath and their association encourages the audience to understand the situations within their relationship from his perspective. Hughe’s poem, ‘Sam’ is his version of Plath’s ‘Whiteness I Remember’ reflecting on the memory of a horse riding incident. A variety of techniques are used throughout the poem creating conflicting textual form, including the use of rhetorical questions, ‘Did you have a helmet? How did you cling on? ’Immediately this personalizes the poem as if he is talking to Plath herself.

The tone and emotive language during the poem also intensifies Hughe’s sentiment towards Sylvia. Imagery is used frequently throughout the text, and in conjunction with alliteration, ‘that horribly hard swift river’ reinforces the intensity of the situation and involves the audience by allowing them to visually imagine the scene, dramatising the situation from Hughe’s position. Controversially Plath’s poetry leads her audience to perceive the events and information through her assortment of techniques and conflicting emotions.

A conflict to Hughe’s perspective represented in ‘Sam’ is Plath’s poem, ‘Whiteness I Remember’ conveying her account of the particular situation. Plath’s outlook is very emotional and uses techniques to assist her in portraying the event from her perspective. Metaphor is used in the expression ‘green grass steaming, houses a river of pale fronts’ to suggest a sense of risk or danger assisting Plath to effectively appeal to the emotions and grasps the audience’s attention to imagine the situation.

Different forms of texts have the ability to manipulate audiences including the contradictory film, ‘The Shawshank Redemption’. This film is based on a murder and uncertainty through misleading events which the composer has created to generate conflicting textual form. Through an array of techniques the film has the ability to have power over the audience’s judgement in a subjective approach. Film techniques contribute to the success the film has depicting conflictive perspectives.

The transitional flashback of scenes at the beginning of the film demonstrate the two outlooks of the situation, one presenting the court who believes that Andy Dufresne is guilty of the crime, and the other screening Andy’s version of the situation where he stubbornly proclaims his innocence. Mis-en-scene used during the film conveys a series of conflicting themes, including freedom and imprisonment and respect and insolence. King has created the characters within the film to assist him produce the biased initiative within the text and conflict the audience’s beliefs.

It is not until the end of the film when the key distorted techniques that King incorporates take place, concluding the film, plot and the expedition of the characters that have been shaped to his Kings controlling intentions he is able to create conflicting perspectives. In conclusion it is apparent that a composer’s textual form of any text, whether it may be a film, poem, novel or article is capable of manipulating their audience accordingly.

In studying and analysing both Hughe’s and Plath’s poetry this is even more obvious as the two contradict each other. Although ‘The Shawshank Redemption’ doesn’t relate to the other selected texts directly, all three texts are comparable as they share conflicting perspectives. During the study of these texts the audience can conclude individual perceptions based on the depiction of events, characters and qualities and situations that have been conflicted by the composers, and individually determine the intensions behind the truths.

Everywhere you go, you are bound to run into a woman who considers herself a stay-at-home wife or mother. To meet such a woman here and there is not considered strange, but as the idea of the “modern housewife” begins to trend more and more – in Britain, especially – it is starting to raise a few eyebrows, and more than a few questions and concerns.

While the modern-day housewife herself would disagree, the working woman is becoming very opinionated on the subject, and have not been shy to express their disapproval of the idea. It is an extremely difficult territory to step into unbiased, and I still find myself on the fence about passing judgment between what is said to be the 'more fulfilling' lifestyle of the housewife and the 'more rewarding' lifestyle of the working woman.

On one hand, it is hard to disagree with a woman who wants her child to grow raised by their own parent instead of bouncing between babysitters and who finds fairness in tending to the home while the man of the house takes care of the finances, but it is equally difficult to argue with the years and years of struggles for women trying to be equal to men in the working world, and what a deafening blow the choice to be a housewife is to all the progress that has been made in their strides.

Each option has presented it's own shares of positive and negative aspects, and I think you'll be surprised to find that your feelings – whether for or against being the modern-day housewife – might not be as solid as you think. A major argument for the housewife is that it is unrealistic to think that you can balance work and a home life and still have a happy marriage and a strong family. “If your mind is fully occupied with other things and you don't put the effort into marriage, then it can go awry. Said Kirsty Robeson, who gave up her job to raise three daughters. Is it really so unreasonable to agree? In a survey of over 2,000 women commissioned by Vitabotics Wellwoman, a vitamin supplement for women, 59% of women only want their husbands or partners to help out at home when they do not have time to do everything themselves. It is not uncommon to hear people complain that they are stressed and tired from the burden of having to work all day and then come home and cook and clean.

So, what is the harm in relieving one of the burdens? The woman can stay home, comfortable, without the pressures of a job, and do the cooking and cleaning and look after the children, and the man, upon his return from a long day at work, can arrive home to a stress-free environment and, by the end of the night, all the cooking and cleaning is done and the husband is home and the family can focus on being just that – a family – instead of scrambling to get the day's chores done before bedtime. The idea seems without flaw.

Compared with 41% of working women, 52% of women who participated in a survey conducted by the University of Virginia described themselves as “very happy” with their marriages. In all the research I did, I found that 'happiness' was a recurring theme among the housewives, none of whom argued that there was a lack thereof. Women seem to be empowered by the fact that their decision to be a stay-at-home wife or mother is a choice and not something expected of them, as it would have been circa the 1950s, and have been using that idea as a justification of their lifestyle.

However, while it is wonderful to live in a day where we have that choice, some might consider it an insult. Sixty years ago, a woman had a place, and she did not get to choose that place, and it took a great deal of fighting and struggling for women to earn the right to choose where their place would be – behind a man, or beside him. Womens' rights were controversial, and their strides toward equality were revolutionary in a way that women and men alike took great notice of; suddenly every woman was making the choice to get a job or further their education and climb the ranks.

While men initially did not accept the idea, a modern family in which both parents work has become normalcy. In fact, half the participants in the Vitabotics Wellwoman survey felt they should support their families financially as much at their partner does, and over a quarter of women work more than eight hours to do so. These women still assume their role as a wife at home, though they expect a bit more help than the housewife does, and they do so by just as much choice as the housewife does.

When I asked my younger sister, Sarah, her opinion on the housewife vs. the working woman, I was surprised to find that her opinion was the complete adverse of mine. “Women who stay at home are out of their minds. They're not doing any good for themselves,” she told me, going on to explain that they are presenting themselves as inferior to men by not harnessing their right to show their full potential as an intelligent, hard-working equal, and also expressing that she believe it is 'normal' to have two working parents.

Contrary to the housewife's argument that a woman cannot give herself to her job or education and her family at the same time, working women believe it is their busy lives that keep their marriages alive. “What makes a happy marriage is likely to be people engaging with each other. If the full extent of your relationships with the external world is the toddlers' group, daytime TV, and ironing, it has got its limits,” said Claire Fox, director of the Institute of Ideas in London. The complaint that couples 'run out of things to talk about', I think, is a misconception.

In the time that my mother had been working prior to her surgery, I often wondered if my parents would ever stop talking about their long days at work. In this, however, I feel like it was less a complaint about their lives and more a way to share and relate with one another about the events of their day. The idea that a woman would have more to talk about after spending her entire day at home is difficult for me to grasp, and the idea that she would be able to sympathize with her working husband is even moreso. One has to wonder how the housewife cultivates her marriage.

Having grown up in a home with two working parents, I cannot say it has directly effected us as a family, but I can always see a strain in my parents' marriage after both have worked all day and must come home to a house that needs cleaning and a family that needs feeding, or even broken appliances that need to be fixed or taxes that need to be done. While I can't help but wonder if my relationship with my mother would be stronger than it is now – which hardly seems possible – had I been raised more by her than I was by babysitters in my earlier years, I feel inclined to agree with the lifestyle of the modern-day housewife.

In my experience, I feel like children have the chance to bond with their parents with or without spending the day with a babysitter, and so I feel like the most important part of the decision between housewife and working woman is about how it effects your marriage. Jessica Renison, a self-declared 'liberated housewife', said, “I certainly feel a woman has a right to work if that is what she feels is right for her family, but I am happier than I would be if I was working. ” I cannot help but agree with the idea.

A woman should always have the choice to educate herself and to work, and there will always be women who choose that road, but it does not mean the ones who choose not to should be looked down upon as lazy or indignant. I believe there is something about a woman that is hard-wired to find joy in tending to her home and her family, and to lessening the burden on her husband, as well as I believe there is something about a man that is hard-wired to be the bread-winner in the home.

While I have not directly experienced participating in either role, I think that I would like to try both someday. I do not think that a woman who choosing to stay at home and take care of the things her husband often loses sleep worrying about getting done is any less capable of succeeding in the workplace and I do not believe it makes her any less competent in being at equal ranks with a man.

I think women should still be proud to have the choice to be a housewife or a working woman, but to expect that now that we have that choice that we all choose the latter seems a bit familiar, doesn't it? It certainly doesn't seem like a choice, that's for sure. So, I ask: where do you stand? The women who stay at home, while perhaps coming across as insulting to the hard-working woman who takes full advantage of her ability to choose to work, may lead the 'more fulfilling' life of a happy, less stressful marriage and a close bond with her children.

On the other end of the spectrum, the working woman may put off the housewife by her lack of dedication to her home in family, but she may also lead the 'more rewarding' life of a home built on the idea that both parents are equal, and a home that does not struggle financially and is supported by the mother and father's strong ability to relate to one another on a personal level. At the end of the day, I can see the beauty in both life styles, and if any woman came to me and spoke of her decision, I would encourage whichever choice she made. Would you?

“Battle Royal” by Ralph Ellison is the story about young African-American man who has to prove himself in White dominant society 1920s. Battle royal is one of the main symbols that show hardship the narrator had to go through to deliver his speech and that white people are in control. His fight goes beyond the character and represents the struggles of all African-American people in pursuit of equal treatment. Battle royal shows control White people have over African-Americans. Narrator came to give a speech but first he was ordered to participate in the fight with his fellow classmates.

Even though the narrator has some “misgivings over the battle royal” (279), he doesn’t protest. “There was nothing to do but what we were told” (280). Blacks are free people by law, still they continue to receive enslavementary treatment. White men are in control of everything African-Americans desire: equality, money, jobs. “Everybody fought everybody else. No group fought together for long”(281). The same way African-Americans didn’t cooperate with each other to fight against White power. They were competing against each other, seeking Whites loyalty.

They hoped that the best servers would get excess to money and status. Blindfold added confusion and anxiety to the fight. “I could no longer control my emotions. I had no dignity. I stumbled about like a baby or a drunken man” (281). Boys can’t predict from what side they will get hit. They can’t coordinate their actions because they don’t have the knowledge of their surroundings. African-Americans were seeking equality but many of them were blindfolded also: they didn’t know who to fight or how. During the fight, narrators blindfold becomes loose.

He gains the knowledge of the surroundings and can better control his actions. It gives him advantage to other boys. The same happens when he receives the scholarship. Education was available mainly to white people. It puts narrator one step closer to their level. It gives him hope that one day he can be equal. Battle Royal shows control white people had over Black people and the struggles of African-Americans in their pursuit of equality. Scholarship gives the narrator, who is representative of African-American society, hope that one day he can become equal to white man.

1 Vandalism 1. 0 Introduction1. 1 ObjectiveThis report has several objectives:• Define vandalism• To analyse the social problem of vandalism in Malaysia• Consider what makes people commit acts of vandalism• Examine the impact on the community• Discuss strategies to prevent vandalism1. 2 Structure of the reportThis report start with define the meaning of one of the social problems in Malaysia which isvandalism and more information about vandalism. The body include the main causes of vandalism, impact of the problem to our society and theways to solve this problem.

Under conclusion, we summarize all the main points and make some appropriaterecommendations in order to prevent social problem of vandalism in our society frombecome worse. 1. 3 VandalismVandalism is the intentional abuse, damage or destruction of any portion of someone else's property or common or shared property such as our residential facilities, furnishings orpublic property. Though vandalism is usually the result of a deliberate act, itcan also occur as a result of neglect or lack of consideration for fellow residents.

It includes behavior such as breaking windows, slashing tires, spray painting onpublic places with graffiti, removing an exit sign and etc. Vandalism is amalicious act and may reflect personal ill will, although the perpetrators neednot know their victim to commit vandalism. The recklessness of the act imputesboth intent and malice. Because the destruction of public and private property poses a threat to society,modern statutes make vandalism a crime. The penalties upon conviction may bea fine, a jail sentence, an order to pay for repairs or replacement, or all three.

Inhttp://www. oppapers. com/essays/Vandalism/17109616/12/2010 addition, a person who commits vandalism may be sued in a civil tort action fordamages so that the damaged property can be repaired or replaced. 2. 0 Vandalism A problem that occurs in most states is vandalism. Vandalism is a growing nationalproblem. Last year this senseless crime cost United States Citizens over one billion dollars. Vandalism is a problem that gets to everyone in some form or another. It can affect your family, friends, property, community, and your pocketbook.

The more you know aboutvandalism, the more you can make it a crime that is more trouble than it's worth. Over one half of all the crimes associated with vandalism occurs in high schools. There is notypical vandal. Vandals can be good or bad students, girls or boys, whites or blacks, rich or poor. The largest age group arrested for vandalism is between 13 and 14. However, childrenas young six and seven vandalize schools and park areas. Teenagers with growing-upproblems act destructively by destroying vehicles, spray-painting graffiti on public places,etc.

Older youths often commit more serious acts such as damaging vehicles or machinery,burglary, arson or theft. Although most vandals do not have a clear motive for theiracts, studies show that basic social problems and attitudes are at the root of thevandalism. Among the many explanations for the crime are anger againstsociety, boredom, drug and alcohol abuse, disciplinary problems, personalproblems and racial/political conflicts. Police, fire and emergency services are affected by   increased workloads andfalse alarms. Also, facilities, such as parks and public rest rooms which everyonein the community uses, become vandalized.

Vandalism affects your pocketbooktoo. People pay their taxes for a reason, to build a better community for thefuture generation. When the community is vandalized, the people are the oneswho have to pay for someone else's damage. Vandalism is still and will always be a growing problem unless we do somethingabout it. We need to   keep our kids off the streets, make sure you educate themabout vandalism by telling then that is wrong and can lead to... http://www. oppapers. com/essays/Vandalism/17109616/12/2010 School vandalism: individual and social context. y Tamar Horowitz , David TobalyVarious disciplines such as psychology and sociology have examined vandalism from differentperspectives, and it is difficult to reach consensus on a definition. Nevertheless, some of thedefinitions have common elements, such as: "an intentional act aimed at damaging or destroyingan object that is another's property" (Moser, 1992); "a voluntary degradation of the environmentwith no profit motive whatsoever, the results of which are considered damage by the actor(s) aswell as the victim in relation to the norms that govern the ituation" (Goldstein, 1996, p. 19); and"the willful or malicious destruction, injury, disfigurement, or defacement of property withoutthe consent of the owner" (Casserly, Bass, ; Garrett, 1982, p. 4). Most of the definitionshighlight intentionality, destructiveness, and property ownership. This form of destructivebehavior is thus motivated not by profit but by other factors. Cohen (1984) suggests that acts of vandalism are motivated by anger, boredom, catharsis, erosion of alrea dy damaged objects, or aesthetic factors.

Research on vandalism is divided into two categories. Some studies look at vandalism from thepoint of view of the individual who commits it: personal traits, difficulties in adjusting to societyat large and to school in particular, and emotional problems. This perspective is derived mainlyfrom epidemiological studies. Other studies look at vandalism in a broader social context. Research on vandalism as a social phenomenon began in the 1930s with ecological studies by theChicago School.

Vandalism was explained as a malaise of modern society that is characterizedby alienation and meaninglessness. Zimbardo (1969) used the term deindividuation to describe asituation in which individuals lose their uniqueness. According to Zimbardo, the malaise of modern society is related to a high level of social mobility, rapid growth, and instability. Eriksonlooked at modern society from the point of view of adolescents who experience social mores andvalues inconsistently and therefore become involved in nonnormative b ehavior.

According to Casserly, Bass, and Garrett (1982), the social explanations of vandalism until the1970s were too amorphous and unfocused; consequently, their explanatory power was limited. Anew line of explanations began to look at specific institutions, one of them being school. Pioneering research on school violence and school vandalism--the Safe School Study--wasconducted in the mid-1970s (U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1978). Thestudy, carried out in approximately 25,000 schools throughout the United States, examinedobjective parameters as well as subjective ones (i. e. , students' perceptions).

The objectiveparameters found to have an effect on school vandalism were school size, age of the studentpopulation, teacher turnover, and parental support for the school's discipline policy. The salientsubjective parameters were the students' views of how their teachers function (e. g. , how fair theyare, whether they use grades to exert power over students) and whether school rules are unambiguous (U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1978). Following this major study, research was conducted that focused on the connection betweenvandalism and school effectiveness and climate.

It was found that when school climate was notpositive and did not enhance students' social welfare, the rate of vandalism was high, and whenthe school did not effectively promote learning, vandalism tended to increase (Zeisel, 1977). Itwas also found that vandalism increased in schools where students did not have a sense of belonging. http://www. oppapers. com/essays/Vandalism/17109616/12/2010 Some researchers have emphasized teacher-student interaction as a causal variable (Heller &White, 1975).

Others have noted that tolerance, respect for others, and motivation to achieve areimportant in mitigating vandalism (Dust, 1984; Geller, 1992). In an Israeli study, Horowitz andAmir (1981) found that students who were involved in vandalism were socially marginal atschool; they felt alienated from school and were low achievers though not necessarily low interms of competence. METHODThe present study on vandalism was carried out in 1999 in four high schools in a medium-sizedIsraeli town. The students in these schools were representative of the social composition of Israel.

The research question was as follows: What factors influence destructive behavior bystudents toward school property? Specifically, is motivation to participate in vandalism related topersonal background, perception of school as an institution, attitude toward teacher, schoolanxiety, sense of hope, perception of school climate, and how discipline is applied? Six hundred eighth and ninth graders responded to the questionnaire, which had six sections. Thefirst section dealt with attitudes toward school and toward the homeroom teacher. Both subscaleswere adapted ... http://www. oppapers. com/essays/Vandalism/17109616/12/2010