The beauty of a Scorpio woman is exceptional, mysterious and totally magnetic. She knows that and is proud of herself. She will control her wish to dominate and will let a man lead in a relationship, atleast during courtship. She knows how to hypnotize a man and gets successful, more often than not. Don't expect a Scorpio female to rush into your arms in front of a thousand people and shout her feelings at the top of her voice. Instead, she will come close to you, glance at you in a sensual way and whisper the most romantic words in a seductive tone.

If you are not sincere with your feelings, don't even try to get close to a Scorpio girl. With those beautiful, penetrating eyes of hers, she can read exactly what is on your mind. She can easily make out your real intentions, so Don't Flirt. It will amount to insulting her and I assure you, insulting her is not at all good for your health. Even when her tone is soothing, her disposition kind and her smile generous, she can be planning the most powerful retaliation. When a Scorpio woman is insulted or gets hurt, her fury knows no bounds.

Then, she can become the most hard-hearted and most sarcastic person on this earth. If she loves with fierce devotion, she hates with devastating malice. If you are really in love with her, then you need to know more about her. She has a very hypnotic gaze and the moment her eyes meet your, you will go tumbling down in her deep passion. Being noticed by a Scorpio female definitely gives a boost to a man's ego. She needs a man who is stronger than she is and weakness in him won't get her sympathy at all. He will be expected to behave like a real man, who can dominate her and make her proud.

At the same time, he should respect her individuality. He should be better looking than average, with an intellect, philosophical and totally masculine. He must also be ambitious and able to handle tough situation with poise. After she gets committed, a Scorpio female will shower you with all her love and attention. Her whole life will start revolving around you and she will be extremely loyal and exceedingly passionate. She is passionate with everything that is related to her. It is almost impossible for her to have neutral feelings. Either she will deeply cherish or fiercely hate.

If any of the feelings are not experienced, she will become completely indifferent towards it. Scorpio women, however, never let these feelings show. Her expression will always remain neutral, betraying nothing. Her anger is very bad and it's better to get out of her way when it gets out of hand. Her characteristics profile will make her storehouse of secrets, but people wouldn't know any of hers. Her personal life will be out of bounds for everyone. At the same time, she will never tell the secrets that have been confided in her, not even to you. Even with you, she will have a private part and its better not to pry.

That does not mean she is dishonest. Infact, she will be so brutally honest that, at times, she may hurt people in the process. Like a typical Scorpio, she will choose her friends very carefully and the credible ones will remain with her throughout her life. She will never maintain a relationship with unworthy people. Determination and will power are her basic personality traits. She can use them anytime to come out of anything that is negative. If you have been able to win the true love of a Scorpio female, you can be sure you will never feel lonely again.

She will be totally devoted to you and even if you two don't get married for any reasons beyond your control, her love for you will not change. She is one of those who believe in the phrase 'Till Death Do Us Apart'. Rather than overshadowing her husband, she believes in supporting him. 'Behind every successful man, there is a woman'; this idiom is perfect in case of the husband who has a Scorpio wife. For her, the future, the happiness and the dreams of her husband hold the supreme importance. She will always defend him fiercely in public and won't take nicely to anyone taking advantage of him.

She will always encourage him to reach for the stars, build his courage and never let him turn back from midway. Scorpio women love their homes and keep them spic and span. Now comes the dangerous part. A Scorpio girl is extremely jealous and fiercely possessive of her loved ones. She is prone to suspicions; so don't give reasons to be doubtful of you. On the other hand, you will have to control your jealousy, since she will be attracting a lot of members of the opposite sex. She also dislikes being possessed by anyone, including you.

In such a scenario, just remember that a Scorpio woman will always be loyal and devoted to you, even in the worst of circumstances. And then, you know you cannot leave her and it is better to adjust to such a trifle thing. Nobody walks away from a Scorpio, right? As far as money is concerned, she will enjoy it whether she saves it in a piggy bank or splurges it on luxurious things. She is very conscious of her social standards and will never compromise in case of status. She likes power and will sacrifice money and many other things for it. She seems to be very practical, but inside she is very emotional.

Like all Scorpios, she will not see any viewpoint in case of her own emotions. A Scorpio female has a sense of fairness and justice. If you don't wish her good morning one day after a fight, she will do the same for the next four days. The same goes for generosity also. If you do one kind deed for her, she will do four in return. As a mother, she will extremely possessive of her children and will care for them. However, she may not express her love openly and this is something you will have to teach her. She will make them independent, fair, strong and proud of themselves, the way she is of them.

She will encourage them to develop their innate talents and make sure they don't go unnoticed. A Scorpio woman can drown you in her passion. But then, she can also bring you to safety when the raft becomes too dicey. She can provide you her calm and steady support in the worst of circumstances. Once you win her love, you will never be lonely again. Your food will be perfectly baked and she will grind fresh coffee for you. You will always come back to a spotless home, radiating with the aura of her magnetic personality, the charm of her deep beauty and the warmth of her everlasting love!

Question 1. When deciding on the research design, one choice is whether to use an experimental or non-experimental design. This depends on the aim of the study. If the aim is to test a prediction that two or more variables are simply associated with each other, the researcher may decide to use a non-experimental or correlational design. However, if the aim is to test a prediction that there is a causal relationship between two variables, then an experimental design is needed. The correlational design examines the relationships between variables as they happen to occur, without altering people’s experiences.

The correlational coefficient often is used to measure the association between variables and the results are normally presented graphically in a scatterplot. Sharon aims to find out the link between postnatal depression and the development of mother-infant relationships. Sharon’s research is a non-experimental/correlational study as she doesn’t aim to find out what causes either of the uncontrolled variables (mother’s depression and child’s happiness) but is testing the relationship between them.

Sharon plans to summarise the results by presenting the data in a scatterplot correlating the depression scores for each mother with the total ‘happiness’ score for the mother’s child. Question 2. To consider whether ‘Sharon’s Study’ is ecologically valid, we need to see if this study can be related to, or reflects everyday, real life. Studies with high ecological validity take place when participants are within their usual surroundings and behaving naturally so that results can be generalised beyond the setting they were carried out in, whereas studies low in ecological validity cannot.

Based on this definition, ‘Sharon’s study’ is not ecologically valid due to potential biases related to the opportunity sampling technique, the questionnaire used and the environment of the study not being representative of a natural environment for the infants involved. The sample group in this study is very small and is a poor representation of society. The researcher is using the easiest and most available opportunity sampling technique, risking to produce a biased sample.

It consists of mothers and infants that Sharon works with in a local Children’s Centre. Mothers who attend the classes belong to a very specific group and their responses to the questionnaire cannot be generalised to the wider population, unless Sharon specifies that her target population is the mothers with literacy problems. The questionnaire itself represents a source of potential bias as the respondents often tend to provide socially desirable answers to appear in a better light.

Mothers in this sample have problems with literacy so credibility of their answers is compromised by possible lack of the question’s comprehension. The researcher intends to analyse the video recordings of herself playing with the children using a time-sampling technique. This creates an artificial situation for the infants as Sharon is not their usual carer and the environment is not as familiar as their own homes would be. In addition to this, time sampling allows for some behaviours to be missed.

This may make the observation not representative. Question 3. ‘Sharon’s study’ is a correlational study where the researcher is measuring two existing and uncontrolled variables: the level of mother’s depression (based on a questionnaire that gives a ‘depression’ score ranging from 0 (no depression) to 30 (high depression) and matches it to a child’s ‘happiness‘ score (calculated by applying a time-sampling technique to analyse video-recordings of Sharon playing with each child).

A correlation study looks for a consistent relationship between two variables, such that if a change occurs in one variable, there will be a corresponding change in the other. Variables are thought of as already existing and cannot be manipulated. Question 4. The researcher used correlational analysis to test possible relationships between two co-variables that she doesn’t manipulate or control. An association or correlation may only be showing indirect affects, as there are likely to be other factors linked to what is being measured that can influence the relationship between the two variables.

There is a group of factors related to the research situation that need to be kept standard, such as: temperature, noise level and light in the room, time of the day, number of children in the creche, choice of the toys and overall layout of the room. Another group of factors to control is related to the participants, such as: age, wellness of the child, potential distress due to physical cause (hunger, pain, dirty nappy, teething), mother’s confirmed diagnoses of depression and whether she is taking a prescribed medication, level of literacy in mothers and how well all the participants are familiar with the centre.

Another set of characteristics to be controlled is the demand and investigator effect. In this case, Sharon should be monitoring if there are any cues in the external environment and her own behavior that lead children to respond in a certain way or mothers to answer the questions in the way they feel they are expected to. All the above have a direct impact on hypotheses, design and execution of the research. To test the link between mother’s depression and mother-infant relationships, the researcher needs to control any extraneous or confounding variables.

The overall reliability and validity of the research can be improved by using more valid measures, such as clinically proven depression score for DSM-IV diagnosis and mother-child interaction score from the reliable observations of the videotaped parent-child playtime in their natural setting. Question 5. Researchers in psychology have a responsibility to conduct their research in an ethical manner. The British Psychological Society (BPS) has a set of principles that ensures ethical conduct, one being to obtain informed and freely given written consent from participants involved in the study.

Generally, children under the age of 16 are not considered competent to give full consent therefore informed consent of parents or guardians, as well as others who act on the child’s behalf (schools officials or in this case, Sure Start Centre Program Director and both parents), should be obtained, preferably in writing. The principle of assent is used when working with young children. Researcher must pay attention to nonverbal behaviour for the signs of any distress that can be taken as withdrawal of assent and signal to stop or modify the procedure.

In Sharon’s study, the issues of consent are very complex due to the age of infants involved as well as the potential low literacy level and the mental state of the mothers. The researcher needs to find a way to explain to them, in language appropriate to their level of understanding, all the aspects of the research that may affect their willingness to participate. Question 6. Other ethics issues arising in this study are risk to the participants, confidentiality, data collection and protection. Data should be accurate, adequate and relevant.

In ‘Sharon’s study’ an excessive amount of unnecessary data is collected: each of her video-recording last for 12 minutes whilst only 30 ten-second segments are used for coding. To maintain confidentiality, video recordings made during the study should contain no names or other ways of identifying children. Results of the questionnaire and audiovisual evidence is ‘data’ and good practice in data protection must be followed by ensuring that no personal information is disclosed to third parties, data is kept securely and is destroyed appropriately once the study is concluded.

The researcher must consider any risk to, or harmful effects on all the participants. In this study mothers might feel insecure and exposed whilst filling up the questionnaire with their infants left in the creche. There is a risk of infants getting distressed not having the parent in an environment that is different from their home whilst play ing with the person who is not their regular caregiver. Question 7. For the research to be reliable it must be possible to be replicated consistently using the same measures and with similar results.

It is not clear from the summary information if Sharon attempted to assess the reliability of her study. For observations to be reliable, the results should be the same regardless of who, or when, is doing the observing. For the coding to be reliable, it has to be clearly defined, structured and repeatable. In Sharon’s case, the behaviours to be coded need to be defined clearly: what constitutes happy, neutral or unhappy?

To assess the reliability of coding, the researcher needs to compare a set of her coding with another set that was produced by another observer analysing the same piece of video (‘inter-observer reliability’) or repeat the coding herself again some days later (‘intra-observer reliability’). To assess the agreement between two sets of coding produced, the results are arranged in the contingency table and statistical kappa is calculated. To assess the reliability of the questionnaire the test-retest method is used. This involves testing the same participant twice over a period of time on the same test.

Similar scores would suggest that the test has external reliability. Question 8. To follow best practice in protecting the data, the researcher should follow strict guidelines. Sharon should ensure that mothers have full knowledge of what her study aims to achieve and obtain their fully informed consent in writing. In fair practice the video-recording is obtained with the guardian present. Data should be used only for the current research and be adequate, accurate and relevant. The standardised diagnostic rating scale for depression could provide a more accurate measure for Sharon’s study.

To avoid collecting excessive amount of unnecessary data, each of her video-recording needs to contain only the 30 ten-second segments that are used for coding. A researcher should not copy or share personal data and should use only secure means of data transfer. To ensure against accidental disclosure the researcher can anonymize each participant by assigning them a codename and use it on all paper documents and video labels. Secure data keeping measures include no computers left unattended, use of the password protection for hard discs and individual files.

All paper materials, removable disks and media should be stored securely and destroyed appropriately (shred all paper material, wipe video- and audio-recordings) when no longer needed. Question 9. Correlation refers to the measure of how strongly two or more variables relate to each other. In the correlational analysis it is important to operationalise the variables by stating a clear way that the two independent variables (or co-variables) are going to be measured as this can affect the usefulness of this method.

The hypotheses should clearly state the two variables that are being measured and what the researcher expects to find out. Whilst Sharon aims to look for a potential link between postnatal depression and the development of mother-infant relationships, her hypotheses does not reflect it and looks at a different co-variable instead (child ‘happiness’). To make her conclusions, the researcher correlates the depression score for each mother with the total ‘happiness’ score for the mother’s child.

The correlation she finds from using the statistical test is -0. 12 which indicates very weak negative correlation: as the level of the mother’s depression increases, there is an insignificant chance that the mother’s child becomes less happy. Scatterplots are a very useful type of descriptive statistics because they provide a graphical representation of the correlation between the variables. From the scatterplot the researcher can describe and summarise the data but cannot make the conclusion about the hypotheses.

In this case, there is a clear demonstration that there is a very weak correlation along with the inconsistency of the results. On Sharon’s scatterplot the highest depression score of 17 correlates to the second highest ‘happiness’ score of 25. At the same time the lowest depression score of 3 correlates to the highest ‘happiness’ score of 27. The evidence in this study is inconclusive and indicates the issues with the choice of the variables and the methods used to measure them.

Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS), also known as Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDPS), are network security appliances that monitor network and/or system activities for malicious activity. The main functions of intrusion prevention systems are to identify malicious activity, log information about said activity, attempt to block/stop activity, and report activity. [1] Intrusion prevention systems are considered extensions of intrusion detection systems because they both monitor network traffic and/or system activities for malicious activity.

The main differences are, unlike intrusion detection systems, intrusion prevention systems are placed in-line and are able to actively prevent/block intrusions that are detected. [2][3] More specifically, IPS can take such actions as sending an alarm, dropping the malicious packets, resetting the connection and/or blocking the traffic from the offending IP address. [4] An IPS can also correct Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) errors, unfragment packet streams, prevent TCP sequencing issues, and clean up unwanted transport and network layer options. 2] [5] Contents [hide] 1 Classifications 2 Detection methods 3 See also 4 References 5 External Links [edit]Classifications Intrusion prevention systems can be classified into four different types:[6][7] Network-based Intrusion Prevention (NIPS): monitors the entire network for suspicious traffic by analyzing protocol activity. Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems (WIPS): monitors a wireless network for suspicious traffic by analyzing wireless networking protocols.

Network Behavior Analysis (NBA): examines network traffic to identify threats that generate unusual traffic flows, such as distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks, certain forms of malware, and policy violations. Host-based Intrusion Prevention (HIPS): an installed software package which monitors a single host for suspicious activity by analyzing events occurring within that host. [edit]Detection methods The majority of intrusion prevention systems utilize one of three detection methods: signature-based, statistical anomaly-based, and stateful protocol analysis. 3] [3][8] Signature-based Detection: This method of detection utilizes signatures, which are attack patterns that are preconfigured and predetermined. A signature-based intrusion prevention system monitors the network traffic for matches to these signatures. Once a match is found the intrusion prevention system takes the appropriate action. Signatures can be exploit-based or vulnerability-based. Exploit-based signatures analyze patterns appearing in exploits being protected against, while vulnerability-based signatures analyze vulnerabilities in a program, its execution, and conditions needed to exploit said vulnerability.

Statistical Anomaly-based Detection: This method of detection baselines performance of average network traffic conditions. After a baseline is created, the system intermittently samples network traffic, using statistical analysis to compare the sample to the set baseline. If the activity is outside the baseline parameters, the intrusion prevention system takes the appropriate action. Stateful Protocol Analysis Detection: This method identifies deviations of protocol states by comparing observed events with “predetermined profiles of generally accepted definitions of benign activity. ”[3]

The Internet Protocol Suite is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks. It is commonly also known as TCP/IP named from two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first two networking protocols defined in this standard. Modern IP networking represents a synthesis of several developments that began to evolve in the 1960s and 1970s, namely the Internet and local area networks, which emerged during the 1980s, together with the advent of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s.

The Internet Protocol Suite consists of four abstraction layers. From the lowest to the highest layer, these are the Link Layer, the Internet Layer, the Transport Layer, and the Application Layer. [1][2] The layers define the operational scope or reach of the protocols in each layer, reflected loosely in the layer names. Each layer has functionality that solves a set of problems relevant in its scope. The Link Layer contains communication technologies for the local network the host is connected to directly, the link.

It provides the basic connectivity functions interacting with the networking hardware of the computer and the associated management of interface-to-interface messaging. The Internet Layer provides communication methods between multiple links of a computer and facilitates the interconnection of networks. As such, this layer establishes the Internet. It contains primarily the Internet Protocol, which defines the fundamental addressing namespaces, Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) and Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) used to identify and locate hosts on the network.

Direct host-to-host communication tasks are handled in the Transport Layer, which provides a general framework to transmit data between hosts using protocols like the Transmission Control Protocol and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Finally, the highest-level Application Layer contains all protocols that are defined each specifically for the functioning of the vast array of data communications services. This layer handles application-based interaction on a process-to-process level between communicating Internet hosts.

Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Layers in the Internet Protocol Suite 2. 1 The concept of layers 2. 2 Layer names and number of layers in the literature 3 Implementations 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links [edit]History The Internet Protocol Suite resulted from research and development conducted by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the early 1970s. After initiating the pioneering ARPANET in 1969, DARPA started work on a number of other data transmission technologies.

In 1972, Robert E. Kahn joined the DARPA Information Processing Technology Office, where he worked on both satellite packet networks and ground-based radio packet networks, and recognized the value of being able to communicate across both. In the spring of 1973, Vinton Cerf, the developer of the existing ARPANET Network Control Program (NCP) protocol, joined Kahn to work on open-architecture interconnection models with the goal of designing the next protocol generation for the ARPANET.

By the summer of 1973, Kahn and Cerf had worked out a fundamental reformulation, where the differences between network protocols were hidden by using a common internetwork protocol, and, instead of the network being responsible for reliability, as in the ARPANET, the hosts became responsible. Cerf credits Hubert Zimmerman and Louis Pouzin, designer of the CYCLADES network, with important influences on this design.

The network's design included the recognition it should provide only the functions of efficiently transmitting and routing traffic between end nodes and that all other intelligence should be located at the edge of the network, in the end nodes. Using a simple design, it became possible to connect almost any network to the ARPANET, irrespective of their local characteristics, thereby solving Kahn's initial problem. One popular expression is that TCP/IP, the eventual product of Cerf and Kahn's work, will run over "two tin cans and a string. A computer, called a router, is provided with an interface to each network. It forwards packets back and forth between them. [3] Originally a router was called gateway, but the term was changed to avoid confusion with other types of gateways. The idea was worked out in more detailed form by Cerf's networking research group at Stanford in the 1973–74 period, resulting in the first TCP specification. [4] The early networking work at Xerox PARC, which produced the PARC Universal Packet protocol suite, much of which existed around the same period of time, was also a significant technical influence.

DARPA then contracted with BBN Technologies, Stanford University, and the University College London to develop operational versions of the protocol on different hardware platforms. Four versions were developed: TCP v1, TCP v2, a split into TCP v3 and IP v3 in the spring of 1978, and then stability with TCP/IP v4 — the standard protocol still in use on the Internet today. In 1975, a two-network TCP/IP communications test was performed between Stanford and University College London (UCL). In November, 1977, a three-network TCP/IP test was conducted between sites in the US, UK, and Norway.

Several other TCP/IP prototypes were developed at multiple research centres between 1978 and 1983. The migration of the ARPANET to TCP/IP was officially completed on flag day January 1, 1983, when the new protocols were permanently activated. [5] In March 1982, the US Department of Defense declared TCP/IP as the standard for all military computer networking. [6] In 1985, the Internet Architecture Board held a three day workshop on TCP/IP for the computer industry, attended by 250 vendor representatives, promoting the protocol and leading to its increasing commercial use. edit]Layers in the Internet Protocol Suite [edit]The concept of layers Instantiations of the TCP/IP stack operating on two hosts each connected to its router on the Internet. Shown is the flow of user data through the layers used at each hop. The Internet Protocol Suite uses encapsulation to provide abstraction of protocols and services. Encapsulation is usually aligned with the division of the protocol suite into layers of general functionality. In general, an application (the highest level of the model) uses a set of protocols to send its data down the layers, being further encapsulated at each level.

According to RFC 1122, the Internet Protocol Suite organizes the functional groups of protocols and methods into four layers, the Application Layer, the Transport Layer, the Internet Layer, and the Link Layer. This model was not intended to be a rigid reference model into which new protocols have to fit in order to be accepted as a standard. The role of layering in TCP/IP may be illustrated by an example network scenario (right-hand diagram), in which two Internet host computers communicate across local network boundaries constituted by their internetworking routers.

The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe, every other detail of the communication is hidden from each process. The underlying mechanisms that transmit data between the host computers are located in the lower protocol layers. The Transport Layer establishes host-to-host connectivity, meaning it handles the details of data transmission that are independent of the structure of user data and the logistics of exchanging information for any particular specific purpose.

The layer simply establishes a basic data channel that an application uses in its task-specific data exchange. For this purpose the layer establishes the concept of the port, a numbered logical construct allocated specifically for each of the communication channels an application needs. For many types of services, these port numbers have been standardized so that client computers may address specific services of a server computer without the involvement of service announcements or directory services. The Transport Layer operates on top of the Internet Layer.

The Internet Layer is not only agnostic of application data structures as the Transport Layer, but it also does not distinguish between operation of the various Transport Layer protocols. It only provides an unreliable datagram transmission facility between hosts located on potentially different IP networks by forwarding the Transport Layer datagrams to an appropriate next-hop router for further relaying to its destination. With this functionality, the Internet Layer makes possible internetworking, the interworking of different IP networks, and it essentially establishes the Internet.

The Internet Protocol is the principal component of the Internet Layer, and it defines two addressing systems to identify network hosts computers, and to locate them on the network. The original address system of the ARPANET and its successor, the Internet, is Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4). It uses a 32-bit IP address and is therefore capable of identifying approximately four billion hosts. This limitation was eliminated by the standardization of Internet Protocol

Version 6 (IPv6) in 1998, and beginning production implementations in approximately 2006. The lowest layer in the Internet Protocol Suite is the Link Layer. It comprises the tasks of specific networking requirements on the local link, the network segment that a hosts network interface is connected to. This involves interacting with the hardware-specific functions of network interfaces and specific transmission technologies. Successive encapsulation of application data descending through the protocol stack before transmission on the local network link.

As the user data, first manipulated and structured in the Application Layer, is passed through the descending layers of the protocol stack each layer adds encapsulation information as illustrated in the diagram (right). A receiving host reverses the encapsulation at each layer by extracting the higher level data and passing it up the stack to the receiving process. [edit]Layer names and number of layers in the literature The following table shows the layer names and the number of layers of networking models presented in RFCs and textbooks in widespread use in today's university computer networking courses.

RFC 1122 [7]TanenbaumCisco Academy[8]Kurose[9] Forouzan [10]Comer[11] Kozierok[12]Stallings[13]Arpanet Reference Model 1982 (RFC 871) Four layers [14]Four layers [15]Four layersFive layersFour+one layersFive layersThree layers "Internet model"[citation needed]"TCP/IP reference model"[16]"Internet model""Five-layer Internet model" or "TCP/IP protocol suite""TCP/IP 5-layer reference model""TCP/IP model""Arpanet reference model" Application [14][17]ApplicationApplicationApplicationApplicationApplicationApplication/Process Transport [14]TransportTransportTransportTransportHost-to-host or transportHost-to-host Internet [14]InternetInternetworkNetworkInternetInternet Link [14]Host-to-networkNetwork interfaceData linkData link (Network interface)Network accessNetwork interface Physical(Hardware)Physical These textbooks are secondary sources that may contravene the intent of RFC 1122 and other IETF primary sources. [18] Different authors have interpreted the RFCs differently regarding the question whether the Link Layer (and the TCP/IP model) covers Physical Layer issues, or if a hardware layer is assumed below the Link Layer.

Some authors have tried to use other names for the Link Layer, such as network interface layer, in view to avoid confusion with the Data Link Layer of the seven layer OSI model. Others have attempted to map the Internet Protocol model onto the OSI Model. The mapping often results in a model with five layers where the Link Layer is split into a Data Link Layer on top of a Physical Layer. In literature with a bottom-up approach to Internet communication,[10][11][13] in which hardware issues are emphasized, those are often discussed in terms of Physical Layer and Data Link Layer. The Internet Layer is usually directly mapped into the OSI Model's Network Layer, a more general concept of network functionality.

The Transport Layer of the TCP/IP model, sometimes also described as the host-to-host layer, is mapped to OSI Layer 4 (Transport Layer), sometimes also including aspects of OSI Layer 5 (Session Layer) functionality. OSI's Application Layer, Presentation Layer, and the remaining functionality of the Session Layer are collapsed into TCP/IP's Application Layer. The argument is that these OSI layers do usually not exist as separate processes and protocols in Internet applications. [citation needed] However, the Internet protocol stack has never been altered by the Internet Engineering Task Force from the four layers defined in RFC 1122. The IETF makes no effort to follow the OSI model although RFCs sometimes refer to it. The IETF has repeatedly stated[citation needed] that Internet protocol and architecture development is not intended to be OSI-compliant.

RFC 3439, addressing Internet architecture, contains a section entitled: "Layering Considered Harmful". [18] [edit]Implementations Most computer operating systems in use today, including all consumer-targeted systems, include a TCP/IP implementation. Minimally acceptable implementation includes implementation for (from most essential to the less essential) IP, ARP, ICMP, UDP, TCP and sometimes IGMP. It is in principle possible to support only one of transport protocols (i. e. simple UDP), but it is rarely done, as it limits usage of the whole implementation. IPv6, beyond own version of ARP (NBP), and ICMP (ICMPv6), and IGMP (IGMPv6) have some additional required functionalities, and often is accompanied with integrated IPSec security layer.

Other protocols could be easily added later (often they can be implemented entirely in the userspace), for example DNS for resolving domain names to IP addresses or DHCP client for automatic configuration of network interfaces. Most of the IP implementations are accessible to the programmers using socket abstraction (usable also with other protocols) and proper API for most of the operations. This interface is known as BSD sockets and was used initially in C. Unique implementations include Lightweight TCP/IP, an open source stack designed for embedded systems and KA9Q NOS, a stack and associated protocols for amateur packet radio systems and personal computers connected via serial lines. [edit]

BMW Type Aktiengesellschaft Traded as FWB: BMW IndustryAutomotive industry Founded1916 Founder(s)Franz Josef Popp HeadquartersMunich, Germany Area servedWorldwide Key peopleNorbert Reithofer (CEO), Joachim Milberg (Chairman of the supervisory board) ProductsAutomobiles, motorcycles, bicycles Revenue€60. 48 billion (2010) Operating income €5. 094 billion (2010) Profit €3. 218 billion (2010) Total assets €108. 87 billion (end 2010) Total equity €23. 10 billion (end 2010) Employees95,450 (end 2010) Subsidiaries Rolls-Royce Motor Cars BMW Motorrad Husqvarna Websitebmw. com Company history

Bavarian Motor Works is a German automobile, motorcycle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916. It also owns and produces the Mini brand, and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW produces motorcycles under BMW Motorrad and Husqvarna brands. BMW is known for its performance and luxury vehicles, and is a global leader in premium car sales. BMW was forced to cease aircraft engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. The company consequently shifted to motorcycle production in 1923 once the restrictions of the treaty started to be lifted, followed by automobiles in 1928–29.

The emblem evolved from the circular Rapp Motorenwerke company logo, from which the BMW company grew, combined with the blue and white colours of the flag of Bavaria, reversed to produce the BMW roundel. However, the origin of the logo being based on the movement of a propeller is in dispute, according to an article posted in 2010 by the New York Times, quoting "At the BMW Museum in Munich, Anne Schmidt-Possiwal, explained that the blue-and-white company logo did not represent a spinning propeller, but was meant to show the colours of the Free State of Bavaria.

BMW's first significant aircraft engine was the BMW IIIa inline-six liquid-cooled engine of 1918, much preferred for its high-altitude performance. With German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe. Among its successful World War II engine designs were the BMW 132 and BMW 801 air-cooled radial engines, and the pioneering BMW 003 axial-flow turbojet, which powered the tiny, 1944-1945-era jet-powered "emergency fighter", the Heinkel He 162 Spatz. In 1992, BMW acquired a large stake in California based industrial design studio DesignworksUSA, which they fully acquired in 1995.

In 1994, BMW bought the British Rover Group[15] (which at the time consisted of the Rover, Land Rover and MG brands as well as the rights to defunct brands including Austin and Morris), and owned it for six years. By 2000, Rover was making huge losses and BMW decided to sell the combine. The MG and Rover brands were sold to the Phoenix Consortium to form MG Rover, while Land Rover was taken over by Ford. BMW, meanwhile, retained the rights to build the new Mini, which was launched in 2001 Chief designer Chris Bangle announced his departure from BMW in February 2009, after serving on the design team for nearly seventeen years.

He was replaced by Adrian van Hooydonk, Bangle's former right hand man. Bangle was known for his radical designs such as the 2002 7-Series and the 2002 Z4. In July 2007, the production rights for Husqvarna Motorcycles was purchased by BMW for a reported 93 million euros. BMW Motorrad plans to continue operating Husqvarna Motorcycles as a separate enterprise. All development, sales and production activities, as well as the current workforce, have remained in place at its present location at Varese. Shareholders structure by ownership •Stefan Quandt: 17. 4% •Johanna Quandt: 16. % •Susanne Klatten: 12. 6% •Free Float: 53. 3% by types •Strategic investors: 46. 7% •Institutional investors: oNorth America: 15. 8% oUnited Kingdom and Ireland: 11. 8% oOther Europe: 5. 7% oGermany: 4. 8% oRest of the world: 2. 5% •Other investors: 12. 7% Production In 2006, the BMW group (including Mini and Rolls-Royce) produced 1,366,838 four-wheeled vehicles, which were manufactured in five countries. In 2010, it manufactured 1,481,253 four-wheeled vehicles and 112,271 motorcycles (under both the BMW and Husqvarna brands). The BMW X3 (E83) was made by Magna

Steyr, a subsidiary of Magna of Canada, in Graz, Austria under license from BMW until 2010. Over 45. 973 were produced in 2009. Starting October 2010 the new BMW X3 (F25) is produced in BMW's plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina, U. S. A. From September 2010, the plant is producing MINI Countryman. It is reported that about 56 per cent BMW brand vehicles produced are powered by petrol engines and the remaining 44 per cent are powered by diesel engines. Of those petrol vehicles, about 27 per cent are four cylinder models and about nine per cent are eight-cylinder models.

Annual Production YearBMWMINIRolls-RoyceMotorcycle 20051,122,308200,11969292,012 20061,179,317186,674847103,759 20071,302,774237,7001,029104,396 20081,203,482235,0191,417104,220 20091,043,829213,67091882,631 20101,236,989241,0433,22199,236 Production by country CountryMake20062008Models GermanyBMW905,057901,898Others MexicoBMW1,500100,000[BMW X3, X5, 3, 5, 7-series RussiaBMW1,5002,000BMW X5, X6, 5-series United KingdomMini 187,454235,019All Minis Rolls-Royce 671,417All Rolls-Royce AustriaBMW114,30682,863BMW X3 USABMW105,172170,741BMW X3, X5, X6

South AfricaBMW54,78247,980BMW 3-Series Total1,366,8381,439,918 BMW also has local assembly operation using complete knock down components in Thailand, Russia, Egypt, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Chennai, India for 3, 5, 7 series and X3 Worldwide sales Vehicles sold in all markets according to BMW's annual reports. YearBMWMINIRolls-RoyceMotorcycle 2000822,181 2001880,677 2002913,225 2003928,151 20041,023,583 20051,126,768200,42879697,474 20061,185,088188,077805100,064 20071,276,793222,8751,010102,467 20081,202,239232,4251,212101,685 20091,068,770216,5381,00287,306 0101,224,280234,1752,71198,047 Automobiles BMW New Class. The New Class (German: Neue Klasse) was a line of compact sedans and coupes starting with the 1962 1500 and continuing through the last 2002s in 1977. Powered by BMW's celebrated four-cylinder M10 engine, the New Class models featured a fully independent suspension, MacPherson struts in front, and front disc brakes. Initially a family of four-door sedans and two-door coupes, the New Class line was broadened to two-door sports sedans with the addition of the 02 Series 1600 and 2002 in 1966.

Sharing little in common with the rest of the line beyond power train, the sporty siblings caught auto enthusiasts' attention and established BMW as an international brand. Precursors to the famed BMW 3 Series, the two-doors' success cemented the firm's future as an upper tier performance car maker. New Class four-doors with numbers ending in "0" were replaced by the larger BMW 5 Series in 1972. The upscale 2000C and 2000CS coupes were replaced by the six-cylinder BMW E9, introduced in 1969 with the 2800CS. The 1600 two-door was discontinued in 1975, the 2002 replaced by the 320i in 1975 Current models 1 Series (E81) (2004–present) Hatchback, coupe and convertible •3 Series (E90) (2005–present) Sedan, coupe, convertible and wagon •5 Series (F10) (2010–present) Sedan and Wagon •5 Series Gran Turismo (2009–present) Progressive Activity Sedan •6 Series (E63) (2003–present) Coupe and convertible •7 Series (F01) (2008–present) Sedan •X1 (2009–present) Compact Crossover SUV/Sports Activity Vehicle (SAV) •X3 (F25) (2010–present) Compact Crossover SUV/Sports Activity Vehicle (SAV) •X5 (E70) (2006–present) Compact Crossover SUV/Sports Activity Vehicle (SAV) •X6 (2008–present) Sports Activity Coupe Z4 (E89) (2009–present) Sports Roadster M Models •1M •1M 1M Based on 1 Series (E81) (2011–present) coupe •M3 BMW M3 Based On The 3 Series (E90) (2005–present) Sedan, coupe and convertible •M5 BMW M5 Based On The 5 Series (F10) (2010–present) Sedan and Wagon •M6 BMW M6 Based On The 6 Series (E63) (2003–present) Coupe and convertible •X5-M BMW_X5_(E70) Based On The X5 Series (E70) (2006–present) Compact Crossover SUV/Sports Activity Vehicle (SAV) •X6-M BMW X6 Based On The X6 Series (2008–present) Sports Activity Coupe BMW has been engaged in motorsport activities since the dawn of the first BMW motorcycle.

Motorsport sponsoring •Formula BMW – A Junior racing Formula category. •Kumho BMW Championship – A BMW-exclusive championship run in the United Kingdom. Sports car •Le Mans 24 Hours – BMW won Le Mans in 1999 with the BMW V12 LMR designed by Williams Grand Prix Engineering. Also the Kokusai Kaihatsu Racing team won the 1995 edition with a BMW-engined McLaren F1 GTR race car. •Nurburgring – BMW won the 24 Hours Nurburgring 18 times and the 1000km Nurburgring twice (1976 and 1981). •24 Hours of Daytona – BMW won 2 times (1976, 2011) •Spa 24 Hours – BMW won 21 times McLaren F1 GTR – Successful mid-1990s GT racing car with a BMW designed engine. It won the BPR Global GT Series in 1995 and 1996 and the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1995. Rally •RAC Rally – The 328 sport car won this event in 1939. •Paris Dakar Rally – BMW motorcycles have won this event 6 times. •Tour de Corse – The BMW M3 – E30 won this event in 1987 Latest news The BMW group has emerged as the market leader in premium car sales in May 2011 followed by Audi and Mercedes. BMW had an increase of 19 percent in sales in the month as compared to their sales figure of 2010. A total of 121,168 units of BMW were sold across the globe last month.

Audi ranked second with a sales of 113,400 units worldwide which is a 19. 5 percent increase as compared to last year. Mercedes-Benz saw an increase of 7. 3 percent in sales with their total unit sales reaching 108,766 worldwide. This is the most successful May for the BMW Group in terms of sales records as reported by the company. These impressive stats were attributed to the popularity of the new 5-series sedan and X3 SUV. The BMW Group comprising of BMW, Mini and Rolls Royce brands had cumulative sales of 147,563 units in May, which a 21. 1 percent increase for the brands. The brands saw an increment of 20. percent in sales with 667,551 units sold between January and May. In the emerging Chinese market, Audi topped the charts with 25,153 vehicles being sold and saw an increment of 44. 6 percent. BMW followed with 21,150 vehicles and had a giant 51. 1 percent increment in sales. Mercedes with 16,401 cars and increment of 43. 1 percent was ranked third in this market. The Japanese automakers hit by the quake, suffered severe loss. Lexus reported a decrement of 45 percent in sales. On the other hand, BMW continued to lead the sales chart in the US with Mercedes following closely. The future of BMW's engines

Despite the performance credentials of this twin-turbo unit, it was bolted into the nose of an X1. However, picture-postcard snowy conditions in the stunning countryside outside the capital Ljubljana meant the X1’s all-wheel drive and winter tyres were very welcome. The new ‘28’ engine, the most powerful four-cylinder BMW engine for the time being, is unobtrusively efficient. It pulls well from as little as 1250rpm and has more overtaking ability than its part-throttle ordinariness might suggest to the driver. And that’s the problem. As impressively as it, the humdrum soundtrack really spoils the party.

Unsurprisingly, it lacks the sense of slickness and inherent smoothness of the twin-turbo straight-six in the X3 and X6 that I also tried in Slovenia. But I couldn’t help wondering just how much of the sensation of the classic in-line six comes from the soundtrack. There’s a very powerful move across the industry towards four-cylinder engines as Co2 regulations force car makers to downsize engines in EU markets. So maybe it’s also time to start introducing both active noise cancellation and artificial, in-cabin, noise generation so we don’t lose that crucial sonic experience.

Last year I sat in the back of a bass-bin equipped Mini Clubman prototype, and with the flick of switch the engine was given an artificial V8 rumble, made all the more realistic by the bass throb delivered through the floor by the sub-woofer. It’s an amazingly effective technique, even if it is fake. I was also prepared to come away from this launch declaring the ‘death of the straight-six’. Not a chance. Last year BMW’s output was 56 per cent petrol-powered and 44 per cent diesel. Dividing up the petrol-powered production figures, just 27 per cent (or 272,000) BMW models had four cylinder engines and nine per cent had eight-cylinder engines.

A massive 64 per cent (or 502,000) of models had the classic six-pot engine. And you can probably add another 150,000+ straight-six diesels. Of course, BMW doesn’t sell four cylinder engines in the US and booming markets such as Russia and China aren’t hobbled by fuel economy regulations. So the straight-six will prosper for a long time to come in much of the rest of the world. Sadly, however, the EU’s 2020 fuel economy laws look likely to result in BMW’s six-cylinder petrol engine becoming an exotic and rarely-sampled

The political career of Kumaraswamy Kamaraj (1903-1975) spanning about 50 years, cutting across the colonial and post-independent phases, of Indian history, is indeed an enviable record. Representing a novel political culture neither bordering on Gandhian thought and action nor possessing the anglicised sophistication and cosmopolitanism of the Nehruvian vision, Kamaraj, rose from an underprivileged background, stood forth as a sober and robust figure winning the confidence and respect of the common people. He showed a rare political acumen and the uncanny ability to grasp social and political realities from the grass roots level upwards.

A hard core political realist, his political life was never governed by any high theories or fancy jargon. Accredited with the capacity to be at ease with cliques, groups, factions and castes, Kamaraj applied his energies in favour of common people. Endowed with an extraordinary memory, his minimal formal schooling! was never a serious impediment. In fact rarely could a man from such a humble origin possess such knowledge about Tamil Nadu, be it geography or ethnography, which is beyond most intellectuals and academicians.

Kamaraj rose from the lowest Congress ranks during the freedom struggle to become the president of the Tamil Nadu Congress Party for over 20 years (1940-1963) interspersed by short intervals, the chief minister of Madras (1954-1963) for nine years; and, as the president of the Indian National Congress (1964-1967), he assumed the crucial role of 'kingmaker'. Kamaraj's ascendancy is all the more significant because he belonged to the low caste Nadar community,1 which had a long history of struggle against social oppression and economic deprivation.

The Nadars, originally known as Shanars, were found principally in the two southern districts of Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari. Palmyra climbing and toddy tapping were their traditional occupations. In the Hindu caste hierarchy the Nadars were ranked very low just above the untouchables and were forbidden entry into temples because of their association with alcohol. Mercantilism and Christianity played crucial roles in facilitating their upward mobility. Within a span of two centuries, they rose from near untouchability to a position of social and economic power.

Though Kamaraj typified the Nadar success story he never was a leader of his community2 and transcended the bounds of Nadar caste identity3 dropping the caste title early in his political career. Hailing from Virudhupatti (now Virudhunagar), one of the early settlements of migrant Nadars, Kamaraj, born in 1903 into an ordinary small scale Nadar business family, was a school dropout at the age of 11 and for a number of years never had steady and proper employment. Kumaraswamy Kamaraj evinced interest in politics at the age of 15 when the news of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre reached his ears.

Responding to the call of Gandhiji's Non-Cooperation Movement, Kamaraj entered the freedom struggle as a Congress volunteer organising meetings, processions and demonstrations. He soon found an abiding place for himself in the Congress ranks as a gritty grass roots level, full-time worker and mass leader of the Congress; and he was imprisoned a number of times for actively participating in the freedom struggle. He spent a total of eight years in British Indian jails during six spells of imprisonment.

When the Brahmin dominance in the Tamil Nadu Congress leadership4 was firmly entrenched and the rivalry between the two key Brahmin leaders, C Rajagopalachari and S Satyamurthi, was brewing, Kamaraj wove his way into the top echelons of the Tamil Nadu Congress organisation as the representative of the non-Brahmin enclave. The 'Brahmin image'5 of the Congress found its affirmation at the hands of Rajaji when he introduced compulsory Hindi in schools in 1938 when he was the chief minister. This move was met with resentment and brought about an open confrontation between him and E V Ramasamy in 1938.

A massive anti-Hindi agitation was launched by E V Ramasamy unleashing a vehement onslaught on the nexus between Rajaji, the Brahmin and Hindi, the 'Aryan language of oppression'. 6 The statewide anti-Hindi campaign involved picketing schools, picketing in front of Rajaji's residence and hunger strikes. E V Ramasamy was arrested in December 1938 and imprisoned for a year. This confrontation sharpened the conflict between the non-Brahmins and Brahmins within the Congress organisation. The agitation was continued till Rajaji had to opt for making Hindi an optional subject in schools in February 1940.

At this crucial moment, Rajaji's candidate, C P Subbiah, was defeated by K Kamaraj with the support of the Brahmin leader, Satyamurthi. Kamaraj was elected as the president of the Tamil Nadu Congress in 1940, the post which he held till he became the chief minister of Tamil Nadu in 1954. The advent of Kamaraj as the party boss from a low caste non-Brahmin background made a "powerful appeal to the vast non-Brahmin majority" and attracted the non-Brahmin elites and the political-minded elements "who had long resented the power and privileges" of the Brahmins, and broadened the social base of the Congress. The non-Brahmin presence in the Congress gained ground, rallying around Kamaraj, a 'rustic' leader who transformed the Congress into a people's party championing the causes of the lower castes. Kamaraj grew steadily from strength to strength displaying his organising skills to control men and matters. During these years his contact with the people and the respect he commanded made his position unassailable. The untimely death of Satyamurti in 1943 improved his position and gave him a further lease of power.

With the Congress machinery under his control, he overshadowed his party men and effectively reduced the Brahmin dominance in the party. As the party chief, Kamaraj commenced his active role in the successive elections of the Congress legislative party of Madras and was the prime author of installing three chief ministers between 1946 and 1952: T Prakasam, Omandur Ramaswamy Reddiar and Kumaraswamy Raja. The next successor Rajaji was certainly not Kamaraj's choice but was appointed by the Congress high command.

The re-entry of Rajaji as chief minister8 without even an election could have derailed Kamaraj's emerging equations with non-Brahmins. The die was cast when Rajaji, flaunting his authority, introduced a vocational educational scheme based on hereditary calling, which met with stiff opposition not only from the Dravida Kazhagam and Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, but also from a large number of non-Brahmins in the Congress quarters. This educational pattern, aimed at imparting to school children the traditional caste occupation of their parents, came to be condemned by E V!

Ramasamy as kula kalvi thittam, devised to perpetuate varnashrama dharma. Rajaji also took the drastic step of closing down nearly 6,000 schools, citing financial constraints. 9 E V Ramasamy campaigned against the new educational policy much to the chagrin of Rajaji. The Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), formed in 1949 by breaking away from the Dravida Kazhagam, also joined the crusade against Rajaji's scheme. E V Ramasamy did not rest on his oars till the scheme was dropped. This second confrontation between them proved too costly for Rajaji.

Rajaji, the statesman of Brahmin hagiography, had to bow out ingloriously tendering his resignation in 1954. Rajaji's political vagaries in 1938 and 1953 meant the passing of Brahmins as the controllers of Tamil Nadu's political destiny till the next four decades. With the resignation of Rajaji, Kamaraj was perhaps the natural and logical choice. At the meeting of the Congress legislature party on March 31, 1954, with Rajaji presiding, his arch rival and the target of his ridicule10 Kamaraj was elected as the leader, securing 93 votes as against 41 received by C Subramaniam who was propped up by Rajaji. 1 Kamaraj as Chief Minister Kamaraj was 'reluctant to accept' the chief ministership but the circumstance prevailed upon him as there was no 'alternative to the kingmaker himself ascending the throne. '12 Kamaraj took the mantle from Rajaji, and formed his first cabinet, which did not contain a single Brahmin contrary to Rajaji's first ministry in 1937, 'dominated by Brahmins'. 13 The elevation of Kamaraj as the chief minister on the wave of opposition to the Rajaji scheme of education, led to the development of closer ties between Kamaraj and E V Ramasamy.

The Congress gained the support of E V Ramasamy and Kamaraj's equation with the non-Brahmins was kept intact. E V Ramasamy was all set to endorse his solidarity with Kamaraj on the grounds that in all these years he was the first and only non-Brahmin with Tamil as his mother tongue to become the chief minister; and for the first time a full-fledged ministry had been formed without a single Brahmin headed! by Kamaraj. According to E V Ramasamy all credit should go to Kamaraj for dropping Rajaji's educational scheme despite opposition from upper castes led by C Subramaniam and Bakthavatchalam who were in favour of it. 4 Extolling Kamaraj as the pacchai Tamilan he urged his followers to extend every support to sustain the Kamaraj rule and prevent it from being ousted, as the interests of Tamils were safe in his hands. 15 However, Kamaraj did not follow the exclusion of Brahmins as a deliberate policy. In fact, Brahmins were incorporated into his ministry at a later stage, one of the prominent gainers being R Venkataraman. For Kamaraj, E V Ramasamy's open proclamation of support was a great source of strength, arriving precisely at the right moment when he himself was under pressure since doubts were being echoed.

THE BRITISH COMPUTER SOCIETY TRUSTEE BOARD REGULATIONS - SCHEDULE 3 CODE OF CONDUCT FOR BCS MEMBERS Introduction This Code sets out the professional standards required by the Society as a condition of membership. It applies to members of all grades, including Students, and Affiliates, and also non-members who offer their expertise as part of the Society’s Professional Advice Service. Within this document, the term “relevant authority” is used to identify the person or organisation which has authority over your activity as an individual. If you are a practising professional, this is normally an employer or client.

If you are a student, this is normally an academic institution. The Code governs your personal conduct as an individual member of the BCS and not the nature of business or ethics of the relevant authority. It will, therefore, be a matter of your exercising your personal judgement in meeting the Code’s requirements. Any breach of the Code of Conduct brought to the attention of the Society will be considered under the Society’s Disciplinary procedures. You should also ensure that you notify the Society of any significant violation of this Code by another BCS member. The Public Interest In your professional role you shall have regard for the public health, safety and environment. This is a general responsibility, which may be governed by legislation, convention or protocol. If in doubt over the appropriate course of action to take in particular circumstances, you should seek the counsel of a peer or colleague. 2 You shall have regard to the legitimate rights of third parties. The term ‘Third Party’ includes professional colleagues, or possibly competitors, or members of ‘the public’ who might be affected by an IT System without their being directly aware of its existence. You shall ensure that within your professional field/s you have knowledge and understanding of relevant legislation, regulations and standards, and that you comply with such requirements. As examples, relevant legislation could, in the UK, include the Public Interest Disclosure Act, Disability Discrimination Act, Data Protection or Privacy legislation, Computer Misuse law, legislation concerned with the export or import of technology, possibly for national security reasons, or law relating to intellectual property.

This list is not exhaustive, and you should ensure that you are aware of any legislation relevant to your professional responsibilities. In the international context, you should be aware of, and understand, the requirements of law specific to the jurisdiction within which you are working, and, where relevant, to supranational legislation such as EU law and regulation. You should seek specialist advice when necessary. Trustee Board Regulations Schedule 3 v 2 – Code of Conduct for BCS Members Page 1 of 3 Approved by Trustee Board 29th November 2006 You shall conduct your professional activities without discrimination against clients or colleagues Grounds of discrimination include, but are not limited to race, colour, ethnic origin, gender, sexual orientation, age and disability All colleagues have a right to be treated with dignity and respect. You should adhere to the relevant law within the jurisdiction where you are working and, if appropriate, the European Convention on Human Rights. You are encouraged to promote equal access to the benefits of IT by all groups in society, and to avoid and reduce ‘social exclusion’ from IT wherever opportunities arise.

You shall reject and shall not make any offer of bribery or inducement. Duty to Relevant Authority 6 You shall carry out work or study with due care and diligence in accordance with the relevant authority’s requirements, and the interests of system users. If your professional judgement is overruled, you shall indicate the likely risks and consequences. The crux of the issue here, familiar to all professionals in whatever field, is the potential conflict between full and ommitted compliance with the ‘‘ relevant authority’s wishes, and the independent and considered exercise of your judgement. If your judgement is overruled, you are encouraged to seek advice and guidance from a peer or colleague on how best to respond. You shall avoid any situation that may give rise to a conflict of interest between you and your relevant authority. You shall make full and immediate disclosure to them if any conflict is likely to occur or be seen by a third party as likely to occur.

You shall endeavour to complete work undertaken on time to budget and shall advise the relevant authority as soon as practicable if any overrun is foreseen. You shall not disclose or authorise to be disclosed, or use for personal gain or to benefit a third party, confidential information except with the permission of your relevant authority, or at the direction of a court of law. You shall not misrepresent or withhold information on the performance of products, systems or services, or take advantage of the lack of relevant knowledge or inexperience of others.

Duty to the Profession 10 You shall uphold the reputation and good standing of the BCS in particular, and the profession in general, and shall seek to improve professional standards through participation in their development, use and enforcement. As a Member of the BCS you also have a wider responsibility to promote public understanding of IT – its benefits and pitfalls – and, whenever practical, to counter misinformation that brings or could bring the profession into disrepute.

You should encourage and support fellow members in their professional development and, where possible, provide opportunities for the professional development of new members, particularly student members. Enlightened mutual assistance between IT Trustee Board Regulations Schedule 3 v 2 – Code of Conduct for BCS Members Page 2 of 3 Approved by Trustee Board 29th November 2006 professionals furthers the reputation of the profession, and assists individual members. 1 You shall act with integrity in your relationships with all members of the BCS and with members of other professions with whom you work in a professional capacity. 12 You shall have due regard for the possible consequences of your statements on others. You shall not make any public statement in your professional capacity unless you are properly qualified and, where appropriate, authorised to do so. You shall not purport to represent the BCS unless authorised to do so.

The offering of an opinion in public, holding oneself out to be an expert in the subject in question, is a major personal responsibility and should not be undertaken lightly. To give an opinion that subsequently proves ill founded is a disservice to the profession, and to the BCS. 13 You shall notify the Society if convicted of a criminal offence or upon becoming bankrupt or disqualified as Company Director This does not apply, in the UK, to convictions spent under the Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974, to discharged bankruptcy, or to expired disqualification under the Company Directors Disqualification Act 1986.

Not all convictions are seen as relevant to membership in the Society and each case will be considered individually . Professional Competence and Integrity 14 You shall seek to upgrade your professional knowledge and skill, and shall maintain awareness of technological developments, procedures and standards which are relevant to your field, and encourage your subordinates to do likewise. 15 You shall not claim any level of competence that you do not possess.

You shall only offer to do work or provide a service that is within your professional competence. You can self-assess your professional competence for undertaking a particular job or role by asking, for example, (i) am I familiar with the technology involved, or have I worked with similar technology before? (ii) have I successfully completed similar assignments or roles in the past? (iii) can I demonstrate adequate knowledge of the specific business application and requirements successfully to undertake the work? 6 In addition to this Code of Conduct, you shall observe whatever clauses you regard as relevant from the BCS Code of Good Practice and any other relevant standards, and you shall encourage your colleagues to do likewise. 17 You shall accept professional responsibility for your work and for the work of colleagues who are defined in a given context as working under your supervision. Trustee Board Regulations Schedule 3 v 2 – Code of Conduct for BCS Members Page 3 of 3 Approved by Trustee Board 29th November 2006BSC

Curious Childhoods The Birthday Party by Vee Spears is a photograph series of unsettling portraits of children. Capturing a duplicity which children posses, both brutal and defenceless in nature. As a whole it attempts to deny the wide belief that a persons childhood is the happiest time of their lives. For children playing adult-roles, It pushes their dress-up's and role-playing to a artistic extreme. Children are so unpredictable and unburdened by social expectations, play with and embrace the grotesque and morbid. They sense for them to dress up is confronting for those who believe this.

The idea which brang about this breathtaking, crisp series came about by a dress up party her daughter attended. Children aged 8-10 are socially expected to attend dress up and costume party's. Innocently Girls usually choosing princesses and dancers and Boys with spacemen and cowboys. Others seem to be darker, with their dark-sides showing as rodent exterminator's and scowling torturers of barbie-dolls. The series takes on the tone from this as one of Twilight Zone and dark dreams, hidden truth's, and innocent beauty.

A twisted series of Revelations, an unsettling mixture of bizarre and surreal. Vee Spears the creator if these piece's, is an Australian-born Photographer living in Paris. She had studied at the Queensland college of art, going on to have exhibited her work at galleries all over the world. Having her work also exhibited in publications such as The Sydney Times, Harpers & Queen, Esquire, GQ and Palace Magazines. German Magazine Art-investor and Eyemazing Magazine exhibited her widely and refer to her as one to watch.

Published her first book known as Bordello during 2004 and which was the branching work to The Birthday Party. She continues her series from Bordello, using the appearance of trickery to affect the audience. Trickery such as masks, costumes and supernatural themes. The series is very similar to the Bordello series, they seem to be suspended in time. Its simplicity of brilliant casting, simple backgrounds, costumes and hair-styles or another era only containing minimal colour affects added to these old style polaroid prints.

This simplicity keeps an interest in the artwork, with the audience attempting to understand each piece. In Exhibition the photographs are life-size, large and bright images placed on the wall. The most popular of these pieces are a Nurse and Soldier like two of the favourite childhood games, but also a dark angel and a dead rabbit. The Birthday Party is a fantastical series which was executed with great simplicity and imagination.

Associates Capstone for Human Services HN299-01 Surviving in a Domestic Violence Relationship Unit 6 Project Kaplan University May 1, 2011 Sharon Sanders A few days after I have left a message on her phone that I called Teresa appear in my office with a black eye, broken nose, and bandaged hand. She says that she fell and will be fine soon. She apologizes for not calling me back and tells me to not worry about her or the children because they would continue to live with her boyfriend.

He is paying the bills now and has promised to buy all of the children new school clothes; they have never had new school clothes before. I was shocked by her appearance and asked her again about the bruises. She now says that she may have fallen accidentally when her boyfriend pushed her, but that it was her fault because she knew better than to anger him.

The first thing that comes to my mind after seeing the appearance of my client is that knowing that treating domestic violence victims requires specialized training even though many people believe that short term counseling and advocacy are what is necessary to successfully treat domestic violence victims, many times a long term approach needs to be taken in an effort to work through the abuse and to help victims to not get into future relationships that are abusive. These factors are essential in beginning sessions, most all victims of abuse have experienced emotional trauma as a esult of being in an abusive relationship. Dealing with these issues takes time, and cannot be worked through in just a few sessions. After these issues have been addressed in beginning domestic violence sessions, effective counseling with victims of abuse may take longer than expected. There are three important messages that I need to give to Teresa the first is telling her she is not crazy, the second that the domestic violence was not her fault, and finally she is not alone.

These messages are essential to the counseling process because the survivor of the relationship believes that the violence was her fault, the abuser often refers to the survivor as crazy and minimizes the violence. Oftentimes, clients may believe that the counselor does not understand their experience because the stories may seem unbelievable. Given this perception, it is important that I demonstrate my own understanding of how it affects each relationship differently. This can be done by reviewing the cycle of violence with Teresa and allowing her to share her experiences.

A survivor can become aware of potentially dangerous situations through recognition of how her own behavior can potentially affect a domestic violence episode. In this case, it is especially important for me to be cognizant of the blame and guilt a survivor might perceive when discussing her behavior in the relationship. The final stages of counseling should assist Teresa in supporting her grief process (e. g. perceived loss of the relationship they once knew) as well as intervention/prevention strategies.

Allowing Theresa to devise her own safety plan as it pertains to her and her family is part of the empowerment process (The Importance of Cultural Responsiveness When Treating Domestic Violence Survivors). I cannot force Teresa to leave her environment but I can make sure she has a safety plan in place until she is ready to leave. I tell Teresa that I will be here for her and help her anyway I can and I suggest to her that she needs to start to attend group therapy as it will allow her to identify with others and decreases the feeling of isolation.

It can also help her to see others in different stages as a means of progress and hope for a future without abuse. Many times group therapy alone is effective with victims of abuse, but other times, clients need that additional individual support. Survivor Therapy focuses on issues of safety, empowerment, validation, strengths, education, alternative, restoring clarity of judgment, understanding oppression, making decisions, and healing the effects of trauma. (Treating the Domestic Violence Victim: Crisis Intervention and Beyond). Being abused by her partner, Teresa may feel confused, afraid, angry and/or trapped.

All of these emotions are normal responses to abuse. She may also blame herself for what is happening. But no matter what others might say, I have to keep instilling into her that she is never responsible for her partner's abusive actions. Dating abuse is not caused by alcohol or drugs, stress, anger management, or provocation. It is always a choice to be abusive. (Leaving an Abusive Relationship and Taking Your Children). In the face of abuse and assaults, knowing that she is a single mother with six children often confronts two kinds of difficult decisions.

First, how will she protect herself and her children from the physical dangers posed by her partner? Second, how will she provide for her children? This second set of social and economic risks are central in each battered woman’s calculation of her children’s safety. If, for example, a woman decides to leave her partner to protect herself and her children, where will she find housing and money to feed her family? Who will take care of the children if she must work and her partner is no longer there (Davies, Lyon, & Monti-Catania, 1998)?

How will she manage the complex, and for many families enduring relationship with the batterer over time? Creating safety requires that communities also try to eliminate the two sets of risks—physical and material—that children and their mothers face. (Young Children Living with Domestic Violence: The Role of Early Childhood Programs). Once I have discussed with Teresa all her options that are available to her if she wants help I set her up with an appointment to go to Unity House and to access what services there are available to her.

Unity House will provide her and her children with a range of comprehensive services. Their Domestic Violence Program is part of a successful collaboration with the Troy Police Department, Police Court, Family Court, Probation and the Department of Social Services. With staff co-located at each of these sites, Unity House helps victims obtain orders of protection, accompanies police on calls and works with DSS to move families to safety.

Trained domestic violence counselors are available 24 hours a day to provide crisis intervention, information and referrals to victims of domestic violence and stalking. (In both English and Spanish) as she may feel more comfortable in talking with someone who speaks her language and might be able to understand her better. There are many options and services available and Unity House can help her find the ones that are right for her and her children. Case Management Services works with victims of domestic violence to assess their needs and provide safety planning based on an individual's need.

The level of service is diverse and intensive and may include: living skills training, obtaining and maintaining housing, utilities and employment, financial literacy, legal assistance, coordinating with the Department of Social Services, Mental Health Services, health care providers and other community resources. With these services available to her it may help to alleviate some of the stress she might be feeling in leaving the environment that she is now in The Unity House Domestic Violence Law Project provides free legal consultation and representation to victims of domestic violence.

The Law Project staff (comprised of a full-time attorney and legal assistant) is experienced in resolving the often-complicated legal challenges faced by victims of domestic violence who are seeking civil legal relief. The Law Project staff provides assistance in preparing legal documents, court accompaniment, safety planning and emotional support in addition to direct representation. Legal services include: assistance in obtaining orders of protection, custody, child support, divorce and other family court related matter Unity House operates the only licensed Domestic Violence Shelter in Rensselaer County.

The Domestic Violence Shelter is available to victims of domestic violence and their children who no longer have a safe place to stay free from violence. The 18-bed shelter provides safe refuge in a confidential location. After going over what Unity House has to offer her I also remind her again that no abused woman has control over their partner's violence, but women can and do find ways to reduce their risk of harm. Safety planning as mentioned earlier is a tool to help her to identify options, evaluate those options, and come up with a plan to reduce her risk when faced with the threat of harm or with actual harm.

There's no right or wrong way to develop a safety plan. Use what applies. She can change it or add to it to reflect on her particular situation. Make it her own plan, then review it regularly and make changes as needed. I tell her that she may want to write down her safety plan, or she may not. If she thinks it would be safe to have a written safety plan and it would be helpful to her, than by all means do it. But if there is a chance her abuser might find it, maybe it is better to just think it all through and not write it down. Do what you think is the safest thing for her. Unity House). Telling Teresa that by her realizing that she is being abused is the first step. Thinking about what to do, however, takes time and help to identify a plan for one’s life. If a problem seems too big, break it down into small chunks and deal with it one little chunk at a time. If you need help, ask for it. Change is always difficult, even if it's what she wants and a change is for the better. The adjustments she must make not only to her daily life, but her way of thinking are so huge she may be left feeling overwhelmed. (I’m Out Now What? Even though she will be going to Unity House for help my agency works with them and I will be checking in periodically on how she is doing. That the counselors there will set up appointments for her and work with her in her progress in leaving this relationship. They will help her to get her own apartment for her and her children, offer her job training so she can get a job, as well as set up daycare for her children once she does start work. As these are her three major things that she is most concerned with once she leaves her boyfriend’s apartment.

I also remind her in doing this she is also helping her children because nobody has a right to make the children stay. They did not agree to this abusive relationship. They have a right to be happy in their own home. Do not take away their rights. I also tell her that in the eyes of the law, a person allowing their children to suffer abuse is every bit as guilty as their abuser. There have been many cases of child abuse where the abused person has gone to jail for not leaving the abusive relationship.

Leaving is the only cure for the abusive relationship. Prior to her leaving my office I tell Teresa nothing else matters as much as leaving this abusive relationship behind her and the children. Not location, not money, not circumstances, not anything should stop you. Just get out! Lives may depend on it. Even if she doesn’t feel the abusive person will take her life, remember they already have. Every person has the right to a safe and happy existence, free of fear and psychological damage. (Leaving an Abusive Relationship).

I also tell her that it will take time to get herself together after leaving this man but I want her to go to Unity House as soon as she can and will follow up with her within two weeks to make sure she is gaining ground on leaving her abuser. That she will need to take baby steps in doing this and there are people out there in her same situation that can help her to do the right thing for both herself and her children. References Cohen, E. and Knitzer, J. Series Paper #3 Young Children Living with Domestic Violence: The Role of Early Childhood Program Retrieved May 1, 2011 from www. ccev. org Duque, Jennifer LCPC Treating the Domestic Violence Victim: Crisis Intervention and Beyond- Retrieved May 1, 2011 from www. uic. edu/orgs/convening/IC-27 Jayne, H. , 2001, 2002 I’m Out Now What? Retrieved May 1, 2011 from www. leavingabuse. com Vargas L. A. The Importance of Cultural Responsiveness When Treating Domestic Violence Survivor Retrieved May 1, 2011 from www. counselingoutfitters. com/Vargas. htm References Mom’s leaving an Abusive Relationship Retrieved May 1, 2011 from www. helpforsinglemother. net Unity House Retrieved May 1, 2011 from www. unityhouseny. com

Mia Donte' Knox En 1103-01 Ms. Kimbrough 29 June 2011 Freedom of Speech or Denial: An Analysis Of “Protecting Freedom of Expression on the Campus” The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights. The amendment prohibits the making of any law "respecting an establishment of religion", impeding the free exercise of religion, abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, interfering with the right to peaceably assemble or prohibiting the petitioning for a governmental redress of grievances.

The article, “Protecting Freedom of Expression on The Campus,” by Derek Bok opens with a life changing scenario and information regarding the freedom of speech for those on the Harvard campus. Bok’s article voices his opinion about the First Amendment and should it make it okay to act upon racist acts, such as those that occurred on Harvard’s campus. As Bok stated in his essay, “two students hung Confederate flags in public view, upsetting students who equate the Confederacy with slavery. A third student tried to protest the flags by displaying a swastika” (Bok 172).

This incident brought about many discussions and disagreements among many people on and off the campus. Bok writes a very sufficient and informative article by using pathos, ethos, and logos frequently. Bok’s article is strongly opinionated, even though it lacks concrete facts. He states many passionate points, making the reader more open to things he says in his work and to help understand how he personally feels about the essay. The way he states his opinion gives the reader room to feel the way he or she would like, but never forgetting his own voice. He uses pathos to appeal to the emotion of his readers.

By using words such as regret and stating that he completely shares the view of those who feel as if, “hanging a Confederate flag in public view or displaying a swastika in response is insensitive and unwise because any satisfaction it gives to the students who display these symbols is far outweighed by the discomfort is causes many others” (Bok 172). He portrays to the reader that he cares and does not approve of such heinous acts and allows the reader to feel him through these words. “Protecting Freedom of Expression on The Campus” shows that Bok possess ethos by showing he knows the law of the land and the guidelines of the school.

Bok states in his essay “ under the Supreme Court’s ruling, as I read them, the display of swastikas or Confederate flags clearly falls within the protection of the free-speech clause of the First Amendment and cannot be forbidden simply because it offends the feelings of many members of the community. This one statement gave him a certain right to speak. Bok’s essay is written with lots of logos in the way he states the things he knows and how he feels. Facts and opinions are a vital part of this article, seeing that it was written to appeal and inform.

His various statements such as “although it is unclear to what extent the First Amendment is enforceable against private institutions, I have difficulty understanding why a university such as Harvard should have less free speech than the surrounding society or that of a public university” (Bok 173), “the fact that speech is protected by the First Amendment does not necessarily mean that it is right, proper, or civil” (Bok 172) Bok uses his opinions backed by a few facts from his own knowledge to help persuade the reader to agree with his viewpoints brought forth. Protecting Freedom of Expression on The Campus” by Derek Bok is written based upon his own beliefs, facts, and some research. Bok’s article, however, lacks credibility due to the fact of his limited facts to back his own opinions. Although his essay fails to prove ethos without any substantial documentation, he comes close to making up for it with his passionate appeal to readers and his relevant, but not concrete data.

His main source is his own opinion and beliefs from what he has seen, heard, or experienced himself. So even though Bok article is a very good one, his lack of sources makes his statements questionable. Work Cited Bok, Derek. “Protecting Freedom of Expression on The Campus. ” Forming a Critical Perspective. Eds. Ann Spurlock, et al. Boston: Pearson Learning Solutions, 2010. 267-270. Print.